Skip Navigation LinksHome > June 2014 - Volume 41 - Issue 6 > Elevated Tissue Plasminogen Activator and Reduced Plasminoge...
Shock:
doi: 10.1097/SHK.0000000000000161
Clinical Science Aspects

Elevated Tissue Plasminogen Activator and Reduced Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Promote Hyperfibrinolysis in Trauma Patients

Cardenas, Jessica C.; Matijevic, Nena; Baer, Lisa A.; Holcomb, John B.; Cotton, Bryan A.; Wade, Charles E.

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Abstract

ABSTRACT: Severe hyperfibrinolysis after trauma is a poorly understood phenomenon associated with profound shock, serious anatomic injuries, increased transfusions, and high mortality rates. Molecular mechanisms driving hyperfibrinolysis in trauma have not been completely delineated. The authors aimed to determine the relationship between severe hyperfibrinolysis and outcomes in trauma patients and characterize the role of the plasminogen activator (PA) system in this condition. A prospective observational study was performed in 163 adult level I trauma patients admitted between April and August 2012. Blood was collected on admission, and fibrinolysis was determined by plasmin-α2 antiplasmin (PAP) levels. Tissue-derived and urokinase PA (tPA and uPA, respectively), PA inhibitor (PAI-1), fibrinogen, and antithrombin levels were also measured. Patient demographics, vital signs, laboratory values, mechanisms and severity of injuries, transfusions, and outcomes were collected at admission or from patient records. Moderate fibrinolysis was defined as PAP level 1,500 to 20,000 μg/L and severe hyperfibrinolysis as PAP level more than 20,000 μg/L. Severe hyperfibrinolysis was observed in 10% of patients and associated with increased injury severity, greater transfusions, fewer ventilator and hospital-free days, and higher mortality. Plasmin-α2 antiplasmin level was directly correlated with tPA level and inversely correlated with PAI-1 level. Patients with both elevated tPA and reduced PAI-1 were more severely injured, received more transfusions, and experienced fewer ventilator and hospital-free days. In conclusion, Severe hyperfibrinolysis is observed in a small percentage of trauma patients and is associated with severe injuries, greater transfusions, and worse outcomes. This condition is mediated, in part, by excessive upregulation of profibrinolytic tPA in the absence of concomitant increases in antifibrinolytic PAI-1.

© 2014 by the Shock Society

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