ABSTRACT: Although a variety of disease-modifying agents have been studied as potential sepsis treatments, no beneficial effects on the course of sepsis, in terms of survival, have been observed until now. Because of their plasticity, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been implicated as an effective novel therapy modality for various diseases and are widely used for cellular therapies and tissue engineering. The existing knowledge supports the idea that MSCs might be beneficial in sepsis treatment. Our objective was to selectively address the evidence, based on multistep processes, supporting the potential of MSC-based therapies in clinical sepsis trials. In this study, we performed a stepwise approach to defend the evaluation of MSC treatments for sepsis from the bench to the bedside. Altogether, the reviewed data postulate that the signals produced by inflamed tissues might determine the functional effects of MSCs. These effects include bacterial clearance, suppression of inflammation, antiapoptosis, or stimulation of regenerative responses. We conclude that the clinical application of MSCs is a feasible and well-tolerated approach and therefore may have benefits for patients with sepsis.