This study was conducted to demonstrate the burn-induced lung neutrophil deposition and damage in rats is affected by the nitric oxide (NO)-dependent downstream cGMP signaling. In experiment 1, 1 H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-α] quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) was given (20 mg/kg ip) to specific pathogen-free Sprague–Dawley rats immediately postburn to suppress the guanylate cyclase (GC) activity. At 8 h after burn, blood was assayed for the peroxynitrite-mediated dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR 123) oxidation and lung tissues were harvested for myeloperoxidase (MPO) determination and histological studies. Pulmonary microvascular dysfunction was quantified by measuring the extravasations of Evans blue dye. In experiment 2, Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was given (2 mM, i.p.) to elevate cGMP levels and ODQ (20 mg/kg, i.p.) or methylene blue (100 μM, i.p.) or saline was given. The animals were sacrificed 4 h after injection and lung tissues were harvested for iNOS mRNA study. The MPO activity in lung, blood DHR 123 oxidation level, and lung permeability increased up to 2-fold, 4-fold, and 2.5-fold after burn. Inhibition of GC by ODQ administration significantly decreased MPO activity, blood DHR 123 oxidation, and lung permeability by 55%, 66%, and 53%, respectively, and markedly decreased the thermal injury-induced perivascular and interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration and septum edema. The protective effects of ODQ were comparable to the use of selective iNOS inhibitor as demonstrated previously. Furthermore, ODQ decreased the burn or SNP-induced iNOS mRNA levels at 4 h after burn. These findings suggest that burn-induced lung dysfunction is mediated by the NO/cGMP system because it is abolished by application of either iNOS inhibitor or GC inhibitor. Also, the beneficial effect of ODQ is partly due to the attenuation of burn-induced iNOS expression by GC inhibition.