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[beta]-Lactams: chemical structure, mode of action and mechanisms of resistance.

Fernandes, Rúben; Amador, Paula; Prudêncio, Cristina
Reviews in Medical Microbiology:
doi: 10.1097/MRM.0b013e3283587727
REVIEW ARTICLE: PDF Only
Abstract

This synopsis summarizes the key chemical and bacteriological characteristics of [beta]-lactams, penicillins, cephalosporins, carbanpenems, monobactams and others. Particular notice is given to first-generation to fifth-generation cephalosporins. This review also summarizes the main resistance mechanism to antibiotics, focusing particular attention to those conferring resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins by means of production of emerging cephalosporinases (extended-spectrum [beta]-lactamases and AmpC [beta]-lactamases), target alteration (penicillin-binding proteins from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) and membrane transporters that pump [beta]-lactams out of the bacterial cell.

(C) 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.