Purpose: To report a case of idiopathic multifocal choroiditis with transient peripapillary zonal inflammation that was followed with multimodal imaging and explain the mechanism by which chorioretinal atrophy may occur.
Methods: Observational case report. Review of the clinical examination, ocular imaging, and progression of idiopathic multifocal choroiditis.
Results: A 30-year-old white myopic man presented with complaints of worsening vision and a loss of visual field for 1 month in his left eye. Using multimodal imaging, including wide-field imaging with fluorescein angiography, fundus autofluorescence, and high-definition spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, he was found to have a macula involving peripapillary zonal inflammation consistent with acute idiopathic multifocal choroiditis involving the outer photoreceptor layer, ellipsoid layer, retinal pigment epithelium, and choroid. This area of inflammation was monitored with multimodal imaging over 7 months and slowly improved along with the patient's vision. Imaging allowed us to view the development of chorioretinal scars from several, but not all, acute inflammatory white spots.
Conclusion: Multifocal choroiditis is an inflammatory disorder affecting the outer photoreceptors, ellipsoid layer, retinal pigment epithelium, and choroid; and areas of acute inflammation may improve over time but can also leave permanent chorioretinal atrophy including focal lesions or peripapillary zonal atrophy.