Purpose: To describe the imaging features of choroidal metastasis using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT).
Methods: This retrospective observational case series included 31 eyes with choroidal metastasis. Spectral domain EDI-OCT was performed using Heidelberg Spectralis HRA + OCT. The main outcome measures were imaging features by EDI-OCT.
Results: Of 31 eyes with choroidal metastasis imaged with EDI-OCT, 14 (45%) eyes displayed image detail suitable for study. The metastasis originated from carcinoma of the breast (n = 7, 50%), lung (n = 5, 36%), pancreas (n = 1, 7%), and thyroid gland (n = 1, 7%). The mean tumor basal diameter was 6.4 mm, and mean thickness was 2.3 mm by B-scan ultrasonography. The tumor location was submacular in 6 (43%) eyes and extramacular in 8 (57%) eyes. By EDI-OCT, the mean tumor thickness was 987 μm. The most salient EDI-OCT features of the metastasis included anterior compression/obliteration of the overlying choriocapillaris (n = 13, 93%), an irregular (lumpy bumpy) anterior contour (n = 9, 64%), and posterior shadowing (n = 12, 86%). Overlying retinal pigment epithelial abnormalities were noted (n = 11, 78%). Outer retinal features included structural loss of the interdigitation of the cone outer segment tips (n = 9, 64%), the ellipsoid portion of photoreceptors (n = 8, 57%), external limiting membrane (n = 4, 29%), outer nuclear layer (n = 1, 7%), and outer plexiform layer (n = 1, 7%). The inner retinal layers (inner nuclear layer to nerve fiber layer) were normal. Subretinal fluid (n = 11, 79%), subretinal lipofuscin pigment (n = 1, 7%), and intraretinal edema (n = 2, 14%) were identified.
Conclusion: The EDI-OCT of choroidal metastasis shows a characteristic lumpy bumpy anterior tumor surface and outer retinal layer disruption with preservation of inner retinal layers.