Purpose: To study the clinical features and incidence rate of ocular complications in patients with punctate inner choroidopathy.
Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study conducted in a single-center academic practice setting. Patients diagnosed with punctate inner choroidopathy at the Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University from 1984 to 2012 were identified. Demographics and clinical features including the presence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and structural complications were collected. Main outcome measures, including visual impairment and incidence rate of ocular complications, were analyzed.
Results: Thirty-one patients (59 eyes) were included in the study. Follow-up data were available for 24 patients (47 eyes) with a mean follow-up time of 3.4 years (range, 2 months to 8.7 years). In the affected eyes with follow-up, the incidence rate of visual impairment to 20/50 or worse was 0.06 per eye-year (EY) (95% confidence interval, 0.022/EY–0.114/EY). The incidence rate of visual loss to 20/200 or worse was 0.006/EY (95% confidence interval, 0.0001/EY–0.034/EY). Thirty-six eyes (77%) had an ultimate visual acuity of 20/40 or better. All of the 13 patients with more than ≥3 years of follow-up had a visual acuity of ≥20/40 in at least 1 eye at 3 years after presentation. Two thirds of the follow-up patients (67%) on immunomodulatory drug therapy did not have new or recurrent CNV. However, this was not a statistically significant difference. Three eyes with follow-up had recurrence of CNV for an incidence rate of 0.04/EY (95% confidence interval, 0.008/EY–0.12/EY). Two eyes developed new CNV during follow-up for an incidence rate of 0.02/EY (95% confidence interval, 0.002/EY–0.066/EY).
Conclusion: The visual prognosis in most cases of punctate inner choroidopathy is very good. The incidence rate of new CNV and recurrent CNV was 0.02/EY and 0.04/EY, respectively.