Purpose: To determine the relationship between the retinal morphologic changes and concentrations of intravitreal cytokines in eyes with diabetic macular edema.
Methods: A retrospective comparative study was performed. The preoperative optical coherence tomography images were evaluated to determine the presence of serous retinal detachments (SRDs), retinal cystic changes, and retinal swelling. The concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8 in vitreous samples collected during vitrectomy were determined. The correlations between optical coherence tomography parameters, other clinical factors, and the concentration of cytokines were calculated.
Results: Fifty-two eyes (52 patients) were investigated. An SRD was found in 19 of the 52 eyes (36.5%). Multivariate regression analysis showed that IL-6 was the only factor significantly associated with the presence of an SRD (P = 0.001; odds ratio, 1.268; 95% confidence interval, 1.105–1.452). The other morphologic changes, such as retinal cystic changes and retinal swellings, were not significantly associated with the concentrations of intravitreal cytokines.
Conclusion: The significant association of SRD with intravitreal IL-6 indicates that inflammation may play an important role in the development of SRD in diabetic macular edema.