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Velez-Montoya, Raul MD*; Oliver, Scott C. N. MD*; Olson, Jeffrey L. MD*; Fine, Stuart L. MD*; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo MD; Naresh Mandava MD*

doi: 10.1097/IAE.0000000000000036

Purpose: To address the most dynamic and current issues concerning human genetics, risk factors, pharmacoeconomics, and prevention regarding age-related macular degeneration.

Methods: An online review of the database Pubmed and Ovid was performed, searching for the key words: age-related macular degeneration, AMD, pharmacoeconomics, risk factors, VEGF, prevention, genetics and their compound phrases. The search was limited to articles published since 1985 to date. All returned articles were carefully screened and their references were manually reviewed for additional relevant data. The webpage was also accessed in search of relevant research trials.

Results: A total of 366 articles were reviewed, including 64 additional articles extracted from the references and 25 webpages and online databases from different institutions. At the end, only 244 references were included in this review.

Conclusion: Age-related macular degeneration is a complex multifactorial disease that has an uneven manifestation around the world but with one common denominator, it is increasing and spreading. The economic burden that this disease poses in developed nations will increase in the coming years. Effective preventive therapies need to be developed in the near future.

Author Information

*Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Rocky Mountain Lions Eye Institute, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado; and

Department of Ophthalmology, Denver Health Medical Center, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, Colorado.

Reprint requests: Raul Velez-Montoya, MD, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Rocky Mountain Lions Eye Institute, Anschutz Medical Campus, 1675 Aurora Court, Aurora, CO 80045; e-mail:

Supported by Genetech, Ophthotech, and Thrombogenics (S.C.N.O., J.L.O., and N.M.) and the National Eye Institute, NIH (S.L.F.).

R. Velez-Montoya and H. Quiroz-Mercado have no financial/conflicting interests to disclose.

© 2014 by Ophthalmic Communications Society, Inc.