Purpose: To describe the spectrum of pigment epithelial detachments (PEDs) occurring mainly in age-related macular degeneration and central serous chorioretinopathy and also in other inflammatory, neoplastic and iatrogenic, retinal, and systemic disorders.
Methods: Pigment epithelial detachments are divided into drusenoid, serous, vascularized, or mixed categories.
Results: The clinical presentation, classification, and natural history of PEDs are reviewed as illustrated with multimodal imaging combining traditional and novel imaging techniques, including fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, fundus autofluorescence, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Most PEDs occur because of pathophysiologic mechanisms taking place below the retinal pigment epithelium that are difficult to identify with conventional imaging modalities. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography and indocyanine green angiography allow a better analysis of the subretinal pigment epithelium compartment.
Conclusion: The differentiation between various kinds of PEDs is essential because each PED type is a distinct entity that has a specific pathogenesis, natural history, prognosis, and optimal treatment strategy.