Symptomatic vitreomacular adhesion describes symptomatic loss of visual function as a result of vitreous traction at the macula.
Symptomatic vitreomacular adhesion can occur in isolation as vitreomacular traction, which may lead to the development of a macular hole, or it may occur alongside epiretinal membrane. It is likely to be associated with age-related macular degeneration and possibly diabetic maculopathy, although this is less certain. The treatment depends largely on the cause, but options include observation, vitrectomy, and pharmacologic vitreolysis. Small uncontrolled trials have also explored the use of an intravitreal gas bubble as a means of releasing VMA. If all cases of sVMA are considered together, then the burden of illness is substantial, with a prevalence of ∼0.35 per 100 population (excluding epiretinal membrane). Furthermore, there may be many more cases of undiagnosed sVMA.
The recent introduction of ocriplasmin is likely to increase interest in sVMA. Clinical trials suggest that it has a role in the treatment of vitreomacular traction and Stages 1 to 3 macular holes but not primarily as a treatment of epiretinal membrane. Its role in other diseases associated with VMA remains to be determined.