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CYTOKINE CONCENTRATION IN AQUEOUS HUMOR OF EYES WITH DIABETIC MACULAR EDEMA

Jonas, Jost B. MD*; Jonas, Rahul A. MD; Neumaier, Michael MD; Findeisen, Peter MD

Retina:
doi: 10.1097/IAE.0b013e3182576d07
Original Study
Abstract

Purpose: To measure cytokine concentrations in aqueous humor of eyes with diffuse diabetic macular edema.

Methods: The interventional clinical comparative study included a study group of 23 patients with diffuse diabetic macular edema and a control group of 22 patients undergoing cataract surgery. Cytokine concentrations were measured in aqueous humor samples using a Luminex xMAP suspension array technology.

Results: In the study group as compared with the control group, significantly higher concentrations were measured for epidermal growth factor (P < 0.001), human growth factor (P < 0.001), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1; P < 0.001), interleukin (IL)-1a2 (P = 0.04), IL-6 (P = 0.001), IL-8 (P < 0.001), interferon gamma–induced protein (P = 0.004), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (P < 0.001), monokine induced by interferon gamma (P < 0.001), matrix metalloproteinase 1 (P = 0.02), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (P < 0.001), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (P < 0.001), placenta growth factor (P < 0.001), tissue growth factor beta (P = 0.003), vascular cell adhesion molecule (P < 0.001), and vascular endothelial growth factor (P < 0.001). Retinal macula thickness was significantly associated with the concentrations of the epidermal growth factor (P = 0.005; ρ = 0.45), ICAM-1 (P < 0.001; ρ = 0.65), IL-3 (P = 0.002; ρ = 0.48), IL-6 (P = 0.003; ρ = 0.47), IL-8 (P < 0.001; ρ = 0.71), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (P = 0.001; ρ = 0.53), monokine induced by interferon gamma (P < 0.001; ρ = 0.57), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (P < 0.001; ρ = 0.61), tissue growth factor beta (P = 0.01; ρ = 0.42), placenta growth factor (P = 0.004; ρ = 0.46), vascular cell adhesion molecule (P = 0.006; ρ = 0.44), and vascular endothelial growth factor (P = 0.01; ρ = 0.42). In multivariate analysis, macular thickness remained to be significantly associated with the concentration of ICAM-1 (P = 0.03; r = 0.30). Vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations were correlated with concentration of placenta growth factor (P < 0.001; ρ = 0.78), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (P = 0.001; ρ = 0.54), ICAM-1 (P < 0.001; ρ = 0.47), monokine induced by interferon gamma (P = 0.004; ρ = 0.44), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (P = 0.003; ρ = 0.43), vascular cell adhesion molecule (P = 0.01; ρ = 0.38), IL-6 (P = 0.02; ρ = 0.35), IL-8 (P = 0.02; ρ = 0.37), epidermal growth factor (P = 0.01; ρ = 0.39), and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (P = 0.01; ρ = 0.37).

Conclusion: Numerous cytokines are associated with the presence and the amount of diabetic macular edema. Among these cytokines, ICAM-1 was the most significantly associated with the disease parameters.

In Brief

Numerous cytokines are associated with the presence and the amount of diabetic macular edema. Among these cytokines, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) was the most significantly associated with the disease parameters.

Author Information

*Department of Ophthalmology, Medical Faculty Mannheim of the Ruprecht-Karls-University, Heidelberg, Germany

Dietrich-Bonhoeffer-Gymnasium Weinheim, Germany

Institute for Clinical Chemistry, Medical Faculty Mannheim of the Ruprecht-Karls-University, Heidelberg, Germany.

Reprint requests: Jost B. Jonas, MD, Universitäts-Augenklinik, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim, Germany; e-mail: jost.jonas@umm.de

J. B. Jonas is a Consultant for Allergan Inc; Merck & Co., Inc.; Pfizer Inc.; Bayer-Schering Co.; CellMed AG, Alzenau, Germany; SOOFT SpA Montegiorgio, Italy; and patent holder with CellMed AG, Alzenau, Germany.

The authors have no financial or conflicts of interest to disclose.

© The Ophthalmic Communications Society, Inc.