Purpose: To evaluate photoreceptor inner/outer segment (IS/OS) defects, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), macular sensitivity, and fixation stability to correlate morphologic changes with visual functional outcomes at different stages after macular hole surgery using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography combined with microperimetry.
Methods: This study was an interventional, retrospective case series. Sixteen eyes of 16 patients with successfully operated idiopathic full-thickness macular holes were included in this study. The IS/OS defect maximal diameter and area, BCVA, central macular sensitivity, mean macular sensitivity, and fixation stability were measured using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography combined with microperimetry, preoperatively, and with a follow-up of 3 months postoperatively.
Results: Both the IS/OS defect diameter and area improved after successful macular hole surgery (P < 0.001; P < 0.001). The BCVA, central macular sensitivity, mean macular sensitivity, and fixation stability of the central 2° also improved (P = 0.001; P = 0.004; P = 0.036; P = 0.031). Stable BCVA improvement was achieved as early as 1-month postoperation despite continuous repair of the IS/OS junction defect diameter and area and improvement in fixation and macular sensitivity within the first 3 months after surgery. The postoperative central macular sensitivity and mean macular sensitivity negatively correlated with preoperative linear IS/OS junction defect diameter (P = 0.033; P = 0.006) and the defect area (P < 0.001; P = 0.002). However, the postoperative BCVA and the improvement in BCVA, macular sensitivity, and fixation stability were not correlated with preoperative IS/OS defect diameter or area.
Conclusion: Continuous anatomical and functional improvements can be observed after successful microinvasive macular hole surgery. The preoperative extent of the IS/OS junction defect is of good predictive value for postoperative macular sensitivity. However, the factors that influence BCVA are multiple. Prediction of BCVA based on a single anatomical parameter or assessment of macular function only based on BCVA should be avoided.