Background: It is known that choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) may erode through the retinal pigment epithelium, infiltrate the neurosensory retina, and communicate with the retinal circulation in what has been referred to as a retinal–choroidal anastomosis (RCA). This is extremely common in the end stage of disciform disease. In recent years, the reverse also seems to be possible, as angiomatous proliferation originates from the retina and extends posteriorly into the subretinal space, eventually communicating in some cases with choroidal new vessels. This form of neovascular ARMD, termed retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP) in this article, can be confused with CNV.
Purpose: The purpose of this article is 1) to review the clinical and angiographic characteristics of a series of patients with RAP and 2) to propose a theoretical sequence of events that accounts for the neovascularized process.
Methods: In this retrospective clinical and angiographic analysis, 143 eyes with RAP (108 patients) were reviewed and classified based on their vasogenic nature and course. Clinical biomicroscopic examination, fluorescein angiography, and indocyanine green angiography were used to evaluate patients.
Results: The results of this series suggest that angiomatous proliferation within the retina is the first manifestation of the vasogenic process in this form of neovascular ARMD. Dilated retinal vessels and pre-, intra-, and subretinal hemorrhages and exudate evolve, surrounding the angiomatous proliferation as the process extends into the deep retina and subretinal space. One or more dilated compensatory retinal vessels perfuse and drain the neovascularization, sometimes forming a retinal–retinal anastomosis. Fluorescein angiography in these patients usually revealed indistinct staining simulating occult CNV. Indocyanine green angiography was useful to make an accurate diagnosis in most cases. It revealed a focal area of intense hyperfluorescence corresponding to the neovascularization (hot spot) and other characteristic findings. Based on understanding of the nature and progression of the neovascularized process, patients with RAP were classified into three vasogenic stages. Stage I involved proliferation of intraretinal capillaries originating from the deep retinal complex (intraretinal neovascularization [IRN]). Stage II was determined by growth of the retinal vessels into the subretinal space (subretinal neovascularization [SRN]). Stage III occurred when CNV could clearly be determined clinically or angiographically. A vascularized pigment epithelial detachment and RCA were inconsistent features of this stage.
Conclusions: Retinal angiomatous proliferation appears to be a distinct subgroup of neovascular ARMD. It may present in one of three vasogenic stages: IRN, SRN, or CNV. Whereas ICG angiography is helpful in diagnosing RAP and in documenting the stage of the neovascularized process, it is frequently difficult to determine the precise nature and location of the new vessel formation. It is important for clinicians to recognize the vasogenic potential and the associated manifestations of this peculiar form of neovascular ARMD so that a proper diagnosis can be made, and when possible, an appropriate management administered.
LuEsther T. Mertz Retinal Research Center of Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital, New York, New York.
Reprint requests: Lawrence A. Yannuzzi, MD, Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital, The LuEsther T. Mertz Retinal Research Center, 210 East 64th Street, New York, NY 10021; e-mail: VRMNY@aol.com
Supported by The Macula Foundation, Inc.
The authors have no financial interest in the subject of this manuscript.