Background: Most patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) have spontaneous resolution of exudative macular detachments and a good visual prognosis. Patients with CSC have a primary choroidal hyperpermeability problem evident as multifocal areas of hyperpermeability during indocyanine green (ICG) angiography. A small percentage of patients develop chronic or progressive disease with widespread decompensation of the retinal pigment epithelium and severe vision loss. There is no known treatment for this variant of the disorder.
Purpose: To study ICG-guided photodynamic therapy (PDT) with verteporfin as a potential treatment for patients with chronic CSC.
Methods: Twenty eyes of 15 patients were studied with fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, and ICG angiography to diagnose the maculopathy, monitor the detachments, and localize the choroidal hyperpermeability of the disorder. PDT with ICG guidance was applied to areas of choroidal hyperpermeability, and the patients were observed to determine the anatomic and functional outcomes.
Results: Photodynamic therapy guided by ICG was associated with complete resolution of exudative macular detachments in 12 patients and incomplete resolution in the remaining eight eyes. The vision improved in six eyes and remained unchanged in 14 eyes during a mean follow-up of 6.8 months. Six weeks after treatment, the mean visual acuity improved by 0.55 lines, an amount that was marginally significant. There was a significant inverse correlation between the baseline visual acuity and the amount of improvement in acuity at 6 weeks. No patient had any treatment-related side effects.
Conclusions: Indocyanine green angiography-guided PDT with verteporfin seems to aid in the resolution of exudative detachments in patients with chronic CSC. This treatment was associated with a rapid reduction in subretinal fluid and improvement in visual acuity. Although the follow-up time and number of patients in this pilot study were limited, the encouraging results and lack of complications suggest that further study is indicated.