Vital exhaustion (VE) has been identified as a potential independent psychological risk factor for incident and recurrent coronary heart disease (CHD). A meta-analysis by Friestad and Prescott reviewed and quantified its impact on the development and progression of (CHD). Thirteen prospective and 3 case-control studies reporting the association between VE and CHD outcomes were included. VE was associated with an increased risk of fatal and nonfatal CHD in healthy populations, and with an increased risk of recurrent events in patients with known CHD.
Pages 260–272; http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000423
In an accompanying editorial, Alan Rozanski and Randy Cohen discuss the findings in the context of other symptoms of negative affect that may combine with tiredness to produce increased cardiovascular disease risk. They emphasize the importance of improving vitality and the need to clarify biobehavioral mechanisms that play a role in the association between exhaustion and adverse CHD outcomes.
Pages 256–259; http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000452
Depression in medical patients has been associated with higher rates of mortality. Martin-Subero et al. evaluated a cohort of 803 medical inpatients and followed them up for 16.5 to 18 years. Depressive disorders as defined by both Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and clinical interview were independent predictors of mortality, even after adjusting for several confounders. These results suggest that depression plays a significant role in long-term mortality outcomes of medical inpatients.
Pages 273–282; http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000390
Psychosocial resources such as mastery and social support predict health outcomes, and allostatic load is one potential mechanism. In a systematic review, Wiley et al. summarize the evidence for a relationship between psychosocial resources and allostatic load. Critical gaps in the literature include (1) inconsistent reporting of results and effect sizes to allow meaningful comparison or meta-analysis and (2) lack of longitudinal designs with resources predicting change in allostatic load.
Pages 283–292; http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000395
Study of the psychobiology of the stress response adds to knowledge of how psychosocial factors contribute to racial and ethnic health disparities. In a sample of healthy African Americans, Lucas et al. measured the coordination of autonomic, adrenocortical, and inflammatory stress systems in response to acute social stress. An interaction of racial identity and perceived discrimination were associated with specific patterns of the stress response.
Pages 293–305; http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000406
Woody et al. used a psychosocial stressor to test whether stress-induced decreases in vagally mediated, high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) predicted increases in circulating markers of inflammation. Greater stress-induced reductions in HF-HRV predicted greater increases in levels of inflammation 1 hour later. Evidence to date for the neural reflex of immunity in humans has relied on resting HF-HRV and inflammation. These findings may have implications for vagally mediated treatment of inflammatory diseases.
Pages 306–310; http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000426
Emotional stress, anger, depressed mood, and other psychological states can trigger acute myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death in susceptible individuals. Mental stress–induced myocardial ischemia (MSIMI) is common in patients with coronary artery disease, but studies of its prognostic significance and underlying pathophysiology are limited. Hammadah et al. describe the prevalence and correlates of MSIMI from the Mental Stress Ischemia Prognosis Study, which is designed to assess vascular, genetic, molecular, and psychosocial variables.
Pages 311–317; http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000442
Celano et al. examined relationships between psychological constructs (positive and negative) and markers of inflammation, endothelial function, and myocardial strain in a cohort of postacute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. Depressive symptoms were associated with more inflammation, myocardial strain, and endothelial dysfunction in the 6 months after ACS, whereas positive psychological constructs were linked to better endothelial function.
Pages 318–326; http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000404
African Americans (AAs) have twice the risk of incident stroke compared to white people in the United States. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain volume is prognostic of stroke, dementia, and mortality. Waldstein et al. examined socioeconomic status, race relations, and brain volumes in 147 individuals. Low socioeconomic status (SES) was associated with greater white-matter pathology, a risk factor for stroke in AAs. Higher SES was associated with greater total brain volume, a global indicator of brain health, in white participants. Findings may reflect disproportionate stroke risk among AAs and people with lower socioeconomic status.
Pages 327–335; http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000408
Bouwmans et al. examined the bidirectional relationship between sleep and core depressive symptoms in patients with recurrent major depressive disorder. They identified three groups: the first, with sleep symptoms significantly associated with changes in core symptoms; the second, in which each symptom was only associated with the onset of the other symptom and not the remission of the symptoms; and the third, whose symptoms showed relatively separate courses. Results suggest that sleep symptoms should be treated alongside core depressive symptoms to increase the chance of complete remission.
Pages 336–344; http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000407
The new diagnostic construct of bodily distress syndrome (BDS) seems to capture most patients with somatoform disorders and functional somatic syndromes. From the vantage of primary care, Rask et al. explored the long-term outcome of BDS in healthcare costs, work disability, and self-rated health status over two and ten years. Patients with BDS were found to have higher healthcare costs, more work disability, and greater subjective suffering.
Pages 345–357; http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000405
Adverse psychosocial factors in the workplace, such as low job control and high job demands, are recognized risk factors for common mental disorders. Milner et al. conducted a population-level case control study to assess whether psychosocial job stressors were also risk factors for suicide. Results suggest that low job control and high job demands were risk factors in suicide by men while not associated with an elevated risk among women.
Pages 358–364; http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000389
Elsenburg et al. investigated whether an accumulation of adverse life events was related to body mass index (BMI) across adolescence and young adulthood. They found that adverse events during childhood were associated with higher BMI levels in young adults, while more recent adverse events were related to lower BMI levels in young adults. No associations were found between adverse life events with BMI in children and adolescents.
Pages 365–373; http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000401