Objective: To determine whether the association between self-rated or interviewer-rated recent acute stress exposures and low-grade inflammation and daily cortisol production in adolescents is moderated by chronic stress ratings.
Methods: Acute and chronic stress exposures were assessed in 261 adolescents aged 13 to 16 years using a semistructured life stress interview. The negative impact of acute stressors was independently rated by both adolescents (self-rated) and interviewers (interviewer-rated). Markers of inflammation (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1ra, C-reactive protein) were measured from peripheral blood samples obtained via antecubital venipuncture. Participants collected 4 saliva samples at home on each of 6 consecutive days for the analysis of diurnal salivary cortisol profiles.
Results: There were no main effects of acute stressors (self- and interviewer-rated) and chronic family or peer stress on adolescent inflammation markers and cortisol (p values > .10). However, the interaction between interviewer-rated acute stress and chronic family stress was significantly associated with adolescent inflammation markers (IL-6, IL-1ra). Specifically, as chronic family stress increased, the association between acute stressor impact (interviewer-rated) and inflammation markers became more positive (IL-6 (B = .054, SE = .023, p = .022); IL-1ra (B = .030, SE = .014, p = .034)). Interactions between self-rated acute stress and chronic family stress were not associated with any biological measures (p values > .10). Interactions between acute stressor impact (both self- and interviewer-rated) and chronic peer stress were also not significantly associated with any biological measures (p values > .05).
Conclusions: Among adolescents, interviewer-based ratings of acute stressor impact may allow for better prediction of health-relevant inflammation markers than adolescents' own ratings.
From the Department of Biobehavioral Health (Schreier), The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, and Department of Psychology and Cells to Society (C2S): The Center on Social Disparities and Health (Chen), Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.
Address correspondence and reprint requests to Hannah M.C. Schreier, PhD, Department of Biobehavioral Health, Pennsylvania State University, 219 Biobehavioral Health Building, University Park, PA, 16802. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received for publication August 26, 2015; revision received May 6, 2016.