Objectives: Prior research has demonstrated that executive function (EF) strength is positively associated with dietary self-control. As such, the differential operation of the brain centers underlying EFs (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex [DLPFC]) may explain controlled aspects of dietary self-control. The present study was designed to examine the causal relationship between DLPFC function and two aspects of dietary self-control: visceral cravings and actual consumptive behaviors.
Methods: The research was conducted using a within-participant design. A sample of 21 healthy female young adults aged 19 to 26 years (mean [M; standard deviation] = 21.10 [1.86] years) received both active and sham continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) to the left DLPFC. Before and after each session, subjective food cravings were assessed using the Food Craving Questionnaire—State. After each stimulation session, participants competed three measures of EF (Stroop, Go/No-Go, and Stop-Signal) and a bogus taste test.
Results: Participants reported larger increases in snack food cravings after active stimulation (M = 9.98% change, standard error [SE] = 0.45) than after sham stimulation (M = −3.46, SE = 0.39, p = .012) on the reinforcement anticipation dimension of Food Craving Questionnaire—State. Likewise, participants consumed significantly more snack foods after active stimulation (M = 70.62 grams, SE = 5.17) than after sham stimulation (M = 61.33, SE = 3.56, p = .006). Finally, performance on the Stroop task was reduced more after active (M = 71.56 milliseconds, SE = 25.18) than after sham stimulation (M = 20.16, SE = 13.32, p = .033); reduction in Stroop performance mediated the effect of active stimulation on increased appetitive food consumption.
Conclusion: These results support the contention that EF strength, as modulated by DLPFC activity, is causally associated with effective dietary self-control.