Objective: We longitudinally monitored life events and health changes in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) to determine whether stressful events may trigger exacerbation of MS.
Methods: Twenty-three women with MS were followed for 1 year. Each subject completed the Psychiatric Epidemiologic Research Interview on a weekly basis. Further information on potentially stressful events was acquired using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule. Neurologic symptoms were also monitored on a weekly basis throughout the year. Potential MS exacerbations were confirmed by a neurologist who was blind to the presence and timing of stressors.
Results: Eighty-five percent of MS exacerbations were associated with stressful life events in the preceding 6 weeks. Stressful life events occurred an average of 14 days before MS exacerbations, compared with 33 days before a randomly selected control date (p < .0001). Survival analysis confirmed that an increase in frequency of life events was associated with greater likelihood of MS exacerbations (hazard ratio = 13.18, p < .05).
Conclusions: These results are consistent with the hypothesis that stress is a potential trigger of disease activity in patients with relapsing-remitting MS.
From the Departments of Psychiatry (K.D.A., B.P.A., P.R.H., E.F., A.B.), Neurology (R.H.), Pathology (B.S.R.), and Psychology (A.B.), University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Address reprint requests to: Kurt D. Ackerman, MD, PhD, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, 3811 O’Hara St., Pittsburgh, PA 15213. Email: email@example.com
Received for publication August 13, 2001; revision received January 15, 2002.