A gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) knock-out mouse model provided evidence that the gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and its neural circuitry operate as a negative feedback-loop regulating fear, suggesting a novel candidate mechanism contributing to individual differences in fear-conditioning and associated psychiatric disorders such as agoraphobia with/without panic disorder. Studies in humans, however, provided inconclusive evidence on the association of GRP and GRPR variations in agoraphobia with/without panic disorder. Based on these findings, we investigated whether GRP and GRPR variants are associated with agoraphobia. Mental disorders were assessed via the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI) in 95 patients with agoraphobia with/without panic disorder and 119 controls without any mental disorders. A complete sequence analysis of GRP and GRPR was performed in all participants. We found no association of 16 GRP and 7 GRPR variants with agoraphobia with/without panic disorder.
Departments of aPsychotherapy and Psychosomatic Medicine
cConservative Dentistry, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus
dInstitute of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy
eInstitute of Psychology II, Technische Universität Dresden
fDepartment of Psychiatry, Städtisches Krankenhaus Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden
gBliestal Clinics, Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Blieskastel
hInstitute for Medical Biometry and Statistics, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein
iCenter for Clinical Trials, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany
* Katrin Zimmermann and Heike Görgens contributed equally to the writing of this article.
Correspondence to David Bräuer, Dipl-Psych, Institute of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Technische Universität Dresden, Hohe Straße 53, 01187 Dresden, Germany Tel: +49 351 463 36954; fax: +49 351 463 36955; e-mail: email@example.com
Received September 27, 2013
Accepted April 11, 2014