Objective: Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that the rates of antisocial behavior, depression, and impulsive substance use are increased among individuals diagnosed with alcohol dependence relative to those who are not. Thus, the present study conducted genome-wide linkage scans of antisocial behavior, depression, and impulsive substance use in the University of California at San Francisco Family Alcoholism Study.
Methods: Antisocial behavior, depressive symptoms, and impulsive substance use were assessed using three scales from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory – 2nd ed.: the Antisocial Practices content scale, the Depression content scale, and the revised MacAndrew Alcoholism scale. Linkage analyses were carried out using a variance components approach.
Results: Suggestive evidence of linkage to three genomic regions independent of alcohol and cannabis dependence diagnostic status was observed: the Antisocial Practices content scale showed evidence of linkage to chromosome 13 at 11 cM, the MacAndrew Alcoholism scale showed evidence of linkage to chromosome 15 at 47 cM, and all three scales showed evidence of linkage to chromosome 17 at 57–58 cM.
Conclusion: Each of these regions has shown previous evidence of linkage and association to substance dependence as well as other psychiatric disorders such as mood and anxiety disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia, thus suggesting potentially broad relations between these regions and psychopathology.
aDepartment of Psychological Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri
bDepartment of Molecular and Integrative Neurosciences, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla
cCalifornia Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco
dLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California
Departments of eGenetics
fNeurology, Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
Correspondence to Ian R. Gizer, PhD, University of Missouri-Columbia, 210 McAlester Hall Columbia, MO 65211, USA Tel: +1 573 882 5427; fax: +1 573 882 7710; e-mail: email@example.com
Received July 22, 2011
Accepted January 15, 2012