The proline dehydrogenase locus must be considered as a positional and functional candidate in schizophrenia. It is located in the chromosomal region of the velocardiofacial syndrome on 22q11 that is suspected to contain genes relevant to schizophrenia, and is involved in the metabolism of neurotransmitters. Positive association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms at the proline dehydrogenase locus and schizophrenia further supported the role of proline dehydrogenase in the development of schizophrenia. In order to replicate these findings, we analyzed three single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a sample comprising 299 schizophrenic patients and 300 controls. In addition, we assessed whether proline dehydrogenase also contributes to bipolar affective disorder, because chromosome 22q11 is also implicated in bipolar affective disorder. We therefore included 300 patients with bipolar affective disorder. This is the first study on a potential involvement of the proline dehydrogenase locus in bipolar affective disorder. Neither single marker nor haplotype analysis revealed an association between variants at the proline dehydrogenase locus and schizophrenia or bipolar affective disorder.