Skip Navigation LinksHome > November 2013 - Volume 1 - Issue 8 > Free Nipple Graft Technique to Correct Nipple and Areola Mal...
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery - Global Open:
doi: 10.1097/GOX.0000000000000002
Case Reports

Free Nipple Graft Technique to Correct Nipple and Areola Malposition after Breast Procedures

Rietjens, Mario MD*; De Lorenzi, Francesca MD, PhD*; Andrea, Manconi MD*; Chirappapha, Prakasit MD*†; Martella, Stefano MD*; Barbieri, Benedetta MD*; Gottardi, Alessandra MD*; Giuseppe, Lomeo MD*; Hamza, Alaa MD*; Petit, Jean-Yves MD*; Lohsiriwat, Visnu MD*

Open Access
Article Outline
Collapse Box

Author Information

From the *Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy; and Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Received for publication August 8, 2013; accepted August 30, 2013.

Disclosure: The authors have no financial interest to declare in relation to the content of this article. The Article Processing Charge was paid for by the authors.

Prakasit Chirappapha, MD, Division of Plastic Surgery, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti, 435, 20141 Milan, Italy, E-mail: onco.prakasit@gmail.com

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.

Collapse Box

Abstract

Summary: Secondary correction of nipple areola complex (NAC) malposition represents a major concern after breast reconstructive procedures. It is frequently requested by patients complaining about asymmetric areolas impairing the whole reconstructive procedure and asking for improved cosmetic outcomes. Several methods have been described to achieve a good symmetry between the 2 areolas, either natural or reconstructed. We describe our correction technique with free NAC graft. A total of 16 patients were treated with free NAC grafts between April 2010 and April 2013 at the European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy. This series focused on the surgical technique and its postoperative outcomes. Three cases of partial graft loss (18%) were observed in the postoperative period. No total NAC necrosis occurred. No infection was observed. All the complications were managed with a conservative treatment, not requiring any further surgery. NAC malposition following breast reconstructive procedures can be corrected using the technique of free NAC graft with reliable and satisfactory results.

Nipple and areola complex (NAC) malposition can occur after several breast reconstructive procedures. After breast conserving surgery (BCS) for cancer treatment, it can occur if large volumes of breast tissue are removed and the breast parenchyma is displaced to correct the partial defect. Similarly, in case of volume replacement techniques using local flaps (fasciocutaneous, glandular, and muscular flaps) to correct partial breast defects, the flaps themselves can negatively influence the nipple and areola position, especially if not well planned. Postoperative irradiation after breast conserving treatment can exacerbate NAC malposition. After nipple and areola sparing mastectomy (NSM), the radial mastectomy scar at the superior-external quadrant can dislocate the spared NAC superiorly and/or laterally. Similarly, any breast scar and its physiologic retraction can impair NAC position if the muscular and skin envelope acts separately and independently in implant-based reconstructions. The correction of NAC malposition is frequently requested by patients complaining about asymmetric areolas impairing the whole reconstructive procedure and asking for improved cosmetic outcomes.

The management of malpositioned NAC is challenging. Several surgical techniques have been described including NAC transposition on a pedicle,1,2 lowering of NAC with implants,3,4 skin expansion, and elevation of the inframammary fold with breast parenchyma. Free nipple grafts have been reported for huge reduction mammoplasties.5–9 Spear and Hoffman10 corrected NAC displacement following NSM by using the reciprocal transposition flaps. Frenkiel et al11 reported a case of successful correction of a high-riding nipple using a Z-plasty technique. Therefore, currently there is no generally accepted surgical technique for managing NAC malposition. Each method can be suitable in specific and selected cases according to the local situation and the causes leading to NAC displacement. We present an alternative surgical approach to relocate the NAC using free NAC grafts combined with fat grafting. It allows restored symmetry between both NACs in terms of contour, size, and site.

Back to Top | Article Outline

PATIENTS AND METHODS

Between April 2010 and April 2013, 16 patients with NAC malposition after NSM or BCS underwent a free nipple graft procedure combined with fat grafting. Patients’ age, weight, height, body mass index, smoking history, prior operative procedures, and associated comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia) were recorded in our database as patient characteristics. Degree of nipple displacement, degree of ptosis, and sternal notch to nipple distance were recorded as morphological characteristics. Surgical characteristics including corrective surgical plan, type of reconstruction, duration of surgery, and cosmetic outcomes were also recorded. Patients included in the series showed NACs displaced superiorly and/or laterally to the correct ideal location. The malposition was quite obvious on both lateral and frontal views when compared with the contralateral side (Fig. 1). A photographic evaluation of the patients was performed up to 12 months postoperatively.

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Image Tools
Back to Top | Article Outline
Preoperative Evaluation and Surgical Planning

All patients underwent a physical examination preoperatively and postoperatively. The midsternal and midclavicular lines were marked before surgery and the inframammary folds with the patient in the standing position. These anatomical landmarks help the surgeon to define the ideal NAC position. The area of parenchymal defect to be corrected with fat grafting and the new NAC location were marked on the breast. The new position of NAC was planned between 21 and 23 cm from the sternal notch, being approximately at the same level of the contralateral NAC with the patient standing with abducted arms (Fig. 1).

Back to Top | Article Outline
Operative Technique

With the patient standing, the new NAC area was marked corresponding to the size of the existing NAC. The NAC was harvested as a full-thickness graft with a scalpel at the level of the subdermis, preserving the complete thickness of the dermis layer and trimming all subcutaneous tissues. The graft was then preserved in saline solution for later use (Fig. 2). The recipient NAC area was carefully deepithelialized with a number-10 blade. The patient was moved to a seated position and the new determined NAC location was checked. The graft was then placed on the deepithelialized bed at the recipient site and fixed with interrupted subcuticular 4-0 monocryl stitches (Fig. 3). Horizontal mattress sutures are used. A tie-over dressing gauze was applied on NAC graft and was secured circumferentially with 4-0 nylon to maintain the graft in place. An alternative syringe stent-assisted bolus tie-over dressing method to secure NAC grafts has been reported by Emekli et al.12

Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Image Tools
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
Image Tools

The fat grafting procedure was performed according to the Coleman’s technique13 after grafting. The fat graft was injected into the defect area through a blunt Coleman’s cannula. We estimated the amount of fatty tissue injected in each individual case, based on shape and size of the defect. The patients were followed at the outpatients department and the free nipple graft was examined on postoperative days 5 to 7 (Fig. 4).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4
Image Tools
Back to Top | Article Outline

RESULTS

All the patients included in this series previously underwent at least one breast procedure, being the most common primary procedure NSM with immediate reconstruction. Thorek reduction technique was performed in 2 cases. As shown in Table 1, the mean age at corrective surgery was 52 years (range, 37–72) and the mean body mass index was 24.2 kg/m2. The mean surgical time was 97 minutes and none of the patients required reoperation. Partial necrosis of NAC was observed in 3 out of 16 cases (18%), resulting in superficial eschar on the nipple. Complete NAC necrosis was not observed in this series. Necrotic complications were managed by conservative dressing of the NAC and followed by spontaneous healing in all cases. No infection was observed.

Table 1
Table 1
Image Tools
Back to Top | Article Outline

DISCUSSION

Abnormally high located NACs after reduction mammoplasties or breast cancer procedures represent a devastating problem with few surgical solutions. Several studies demonstrated the value and efficacy of free nipple transplantation in reduction mammoplasty.6–8,14 On the contrary, few reports in the literature described free NAC graft to correct NAC malposition.10,15 Our results demonstrate that NAC graft is a simple and reliable technique to correct NAC malposition after previous breast procedures, even in those patients who previously underwent locoregional radiotherapy that could negatively affect wound healing and graft intake. We combined fat grafting in our series to achieve and maintain breast fullness and symmetry. We believe that this combined procedure has the great advantage over other techniques of long-lasting results.

Tricky technical points of our technique include a careful and precise dissection of the NAC to ensure that all subcutaneous tissue has been trimmed, not thinning too much the graft, otherwise nipple projection and erectility will be severely impaired or completely absent.5 Horizontal mattress sutures of the graft into the recipient deepithelialized bed is another key point. A meticulous preparation of the graft and recipient bed and an adequate postoperative immobilization of the graft should minimize the risk of graft failure. In fact, an insufficient tie-over dressing with decreased contact between the graft and the recipient bed can lead to partial to total graft loss. The main disadvantages of this procedure are the resulting scar at the donor area and the pigmentation of the NAC after grafting. Depigmentation can be corrected with tattooing.

Limitations of our study include the small sample size and a single surgeon experience. Although several techniques to successfully move the NAC to a more appropriate location have been described in the literature (Table 2), however, the present series is the largest for this specific type of surgery. Further comparative studies with larger sample sizes are required.

Table 2
Table 2
Image Tools
Back to Top | Article Outline

CONCLUSIONS

In conclusion, a simple and effective technique of the free nipple and areola graft is presented in combination with fat grafting. This combined procedure allows the simultaneous correction of a malpositioned NAC and parenchyma defects after BCS or NSM in breast cancer patients.

Back to Top | Article Outline

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We acknowledge assistant professor Dr. Gloria Vidheecharoen and associate professor Panuwat Lertsithichai for English revision of the text.

Back to Top | Article Outline

REFERENCES

1. Mohmand H, Naasan A. Double U-plasty for correction of geometric malposition of the nipple-areola complex. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2002;109:2019–2022

2. van Straalen WR, van Trier AJ, Groenevelt F. Correction of the post-burn malpositioned nipple-areola complex by transposition of two subcutaneous pedicled flaps. Br J Plast Surg. 2000;53:406–409

3. Millard DR Jr, Mullin WR, Lesavoy MA. Secondary correction of the too-high areola and nipple after a mammaplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1976;58:568–572

4. Colwell AS, May JW Jr, Slavin SA. Lowering the postoperative high-riding nipple. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;120:596–599

5. Mess SA, Gradinger GP, Spear SLSpear AL. Breast reduction with the free-nipple technique. Surgery of the Breast: Principles and Art. 20062nd ed Philadelphia, PA Lippincott Williams and Wilkins:1172–1188

6. Gorgu M, Ayhan M, Aytug Z, et al. Maximizing breast projection with combined free nipple graft reduction mammaplasty and back-folded dermaglandular inferior pedicle. Breast J. 2007;13:226–232

7. Güven E, Aydin H, Başaran K, et al. Reduction mammaplasty using bipedicled dermoglandular flaps and free-nipple transplantation. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2010;34:738–744

8. Firat C, Gurlek A, Erbatur S, et al. An autoprosthesis technique for better breast projection in free nipple graft reduction mammaplasty. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2012;36:1340–1346

9. Thorek M. Possibilities in the reconstruction of the human form 1922. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 1989;13:55–58

10. Spear SL, Hoffman S. Relocation of the displaced nipple-areola by reciprocal skin grafts. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1998;101:1355–1358

11. Frenkiel BA, Pacifico MD, Ritz M, et al. A solution to the high-riding nipple-areola complex. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2010;34:525–527

12. Emekli U, Güven E, Ozden BC, et al. A practical dressing method after nipple–areola reconstruction. Eur J Plast Surg. 2004;27:99–100

13. Coleman SR. Long-term survival of fat transplants: controlled demonstrations. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 1995;19:421–425

14. Misirlioglu A, Akoz T. Familial severe gigantomastia and reduction with the free nipple graft vertical mammoplasty technique: report of two cases. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2005;29:205–209

15. Ali S, Jaffe W, Howcroft A. A simple method of resiting the malpositioned nipple. Br J Plast Surg. 1997;50:470–471

16. Staley H, Serra MP. A technique to correct a malpositioned nipple within the confines of a well-placed areola. Ann Plast Surg. 2012 Dec 13 [Epub ahead of print]
17. Spear SL, Albino FP, Al-Attar A. Repairing the high-riding nipple with reciprocal transposition flaps. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2013;131:687–689

18. Taneda H, Sakai S. Transposition technique for correction of a malpositioned nipple-areola complex after reconstruction following a nipple-sparing mastectomy: a case report. Ann Plast Surg. 2011;67:579–582

19. Takayanagi S. Transposition of the malpositioned nipple-areola complex in breast reconstruction with implants. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2010;34:52–58

© 2013 American Society of Plastic Surgeons