Background: AlloDerm, a brand of acellular dermal matrix, is commonly used as an internal hammock to support the tissue expander or permanent implant in breast reconstruction. The aim of our study is to evaluate the complication rates associated with the freeze-dried (FD) AlloDerm and the ready-to-use (RTU) AlloDerm.
Methods: This institutional review board–approved retrospective study involved 103 patients who underwent immediate postmastectomy breast reconstructions from June 2011 to August 2012. The first 51 patients underwent 96 immediate breast reconstructions with FD AlloDerm. The subsequent 52 patients underwent 100 immediate breast reconstructions with RTU AlloDerm. Patient demographics, postoperative complication rates in study cohort, and complication rates stratified by body mass index (BMI) were analyzed.
Results: Multiple patient demographics in the 2 cohorts are closely matched (P > 0.05). RTU AlloDerm was associated with higher rates of seroma and cellulitis compared with FD AlloDerm (22.0% vs 18.8%, P = 0.599 and 21.0% vs 12.5%, P = 0.129, respectively). Significantly higher rates of seroma and cellulitis were found in patients with BMI ≥ 30 compared with BMI < 30 (34.5% vs 9.2%, P < 0.001 and 29.9% vs 6.4%, P < 0.001, respectively). A generalized linear mixed model shows that obesity and RTU AlloDerm are statistically significant predictors of cellulitis (adjusted odds ratio = 10.413, P < 0.001 and adjusted odds ratio = 3.712, P = 0.011, respectively).
Conclusions: Our study demonstrates a clinically higher postoperative complication rate in immediate breast reconstruction with RTU AlloDerm compared with FD AlloDerm and highlights the unfavorable risk factor correlation with significant obesity.