Throughout history, the technological advancements of conventional clinical photography in plastic surgery have not only refined the methods available to the plastic surgeon, but have invigorated the profession through technology. The technology of the once traditional two-dimensional photograph has since been revolutionized and refashioned to incorporate novel applications, which have since become the standard in clinical photography. Contrary to traditional standardized two-dimensional photographs, three-dimensional photography provides the surgeon with an invaluable volumetric and morphologic analysis by demonstrating true surface dimensions both preoperatively and postoperatively. Clinical photography has served as one of the fundamental objective means by which plastic surgeons review outcomes; however, the newer three-dimensional technology has been primarily used to enhance the preoperative consultation with surgical simulations. The authors intend to familiarize readers with the notion that three-dimensional photography extends well beyond its marketing application during surgical consultation. For the cosmetic surgeon, as the application of three-dimensional photography continues to mature in facial plastic surgery, it will continue to bypass the dated conventional photographic methods plastic surgeons once relied on. This article reviews a paradigm shift and provides a historical review of the fascinating evolution of photography in plastic surgery by highlighting the clinical utility of three-dimensional photography as an adjunct to plastic and reconstructive surgery practices. As three-dimensional photographic technology continues to evolve, its application in facial plastic surgery will provide an opportunity for a new objective standard in plastic surgery.
New Brunswick, N.J.; Bronx, N.Y.; and Dallas, Texas
From the Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital; Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine; and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center.
Received for publication May 27, 2016; accepted August 22, 2016.
Disclosure:Dr. Tepper is a consultant for Stryker CMF and a shareholder in 3D Systems and MirrorMe3D. Dr. Stern is a founder of MirrorMe3D. The remaining authors have no financial disclosures to report.
Oren M. Tepper, M.D., Craniofacial Surgery, Aesthetic Surgery, Division of Plastic Surgery, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1776 Eastchester Road, Suite 200, Bronx, N.Y. 10461, firstname.lastname@example.org