Learning Objectives: After reviewing this article, the participant should be able to understand: 1. The epidemiology and genetics of microtia. 2. Refinements in surgical technique for microtia. 3. Outcomes of treatment. 4. Challenges in treatment selection, hearing restoration, surgical training, and tissue engineering.
Summary: Microtia reconstruction is both challenging and controversial. Our understanding of the epidemiology and genetics of microtia is improving. Surgical techniques continue to evolve, with better results. Treatment selection continues to be controversial. There are strong proponents for reconstruction with costal cartilage, Medpor or a prosthesis. More realistic models for teaching surgeons how to do the procedures are becoming available. Our approach to hearing rehabilitation is changing. Better solutions using percutaneous and implantable devices are under evaluation to help both unilateral and bilateral microtia patients. Tissue engineering will offer some exciting new treatment possibilities in the future.