Background: Acute kidney injury is a major challenge in critical care medicine, with high rates of in-hospital morbidity and mortality. Stem cell therapy has emerged as an evolving technology that could have a substantial impact on acute kidney injury outcomes in the critical care environment. Therefore, the authors investigated the therapeutic effects of adipose-derived stem cells in ischemic acute kidney injury in rats.
Methods: The authors used an ischemia-reperfusion–induced acute kidney injury rat model. The effects of rescuing acute kidney injury were assessed with regard to different adipose-derived stem cell numbers and various routes of administration compared with sham-operated and phosphate-buffered saline–treated groups.
Results: Both intrarenal arterial and intravenous administration of adipose-derived stem cells reduced blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels, and also decreased the tubular injury score 48 hours after ischemia-reperfusion–induced acute kidney injury in a dose-dependent manner, compared with the phosphate-buffered saline–treated group. In the authors’ study, it was determined that the optimal cell number was 5 × 105. Furthermore, adipose-derived stem cell transplantation exhibited antioxidative and antiinflammatory properties to reduce apoptosis and promote proliferation of renal tubular cells.
Conclusions: An optimal number of adipose-derived stem cells administered by means of the intrarenal arterial or the intravenous route effectively rescued ischemia-reperfusion–induced acute kidney injury in rats. Antioxidative and antiapoptotic properties of adipose-derived stem cells to reduce tubular cell injury also merit recognition and further study.