Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

Skip Navigation LinksHome > November 2004 - Volume 114 - Issue 6 > Consensus Recommendations on the Use of Botulinum Toxin Type...
Text sizing:
Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery:
doi: 10.1097/01.PRS.0000144795.76040.D3
Consensus Statement

Consensus Recommendations on the Use of Botulinum Toxin Type A in Facial Aesthetics

Carruthers, Jean M.D.; Fagien, Steven M.D.; Matarasso, Seth L. M.D. the; Botox Consensus Group

Supplemental Author Material
Collapse Box


The use of botulinum toxin type A for facial enhancement is the most common cosmetic procedure currently undertaken in the United States. Overall clinical and study experience with botulinum toxin type A treatment for facial enhancement has confirmed that it is effective and safe in both the short and long term. Nevertheless, consistent guidelines representing the consensus of experts for aesthetic treatments of areas other than glabellar lines have not been published. Therefore, a panel of experts on the aesthetic uses of Botox Cosmetic (botulinum toxin type A; Allergan, Inc., Irvine, Calif.) was convened to develop consensus guidelines. This publication comprises the recommendations of this panel and provides guidelines on general issues, such as the importance of the aesthetic evaluation and individualization of treatment, reconstitution and handling of the botulinum toxin type A, procedural considerations, dosing and injection-site variables, and patient selection and counseling. In addition, specific considerations and recommendations are provided by treatment area, including glabellar lines, horizontal forehead lines, “crow’s feet,” “bunny lines” (downward radiating lines on the sides of nose), the perioral area, the dimpled chin, and platysmal bands. The review of each area encompasses the relevant anatomy, specifics on injection locations and techniques, starting doses (total and per injection point), the influence of other variables, such as gender, and assessment and retreatment issues. Factors unique to each area are presented, and the discussion of each treatment area concludes with a review of key elements that can increase the likelihood of a successful outcome. Summary tables are provided throughout.

©2004American Society of Plastic Surgeons


Article Tools


Article Level Metrics

The Clinical Masters of PRS – Breast eBooks

4 Essential eBooks for Plastic Surgeons