Hypospadias is a congenital anomaly characterized by a ventrally placed urethral meatus in a more proximal position on the midline than its normal position in the glanular part of the penis. In 1961, C. E. Horton and C. J. Devine, Jr., developed single-stage modern surgical techniques, namely, local skin flaps and free skin grafts, for urethra reconstruction in hypospadias repair, which may be applied to almost any case with different localizations of the meatus. Later, two new methods, advancement of the urethra and preputial island flap techniques, were added to the surgical algorithm. Because acceptable results were observed, the authors have insisted on using these four techniques for all hypospadias cases since 1972. Complication rates (mainly fistula formation) were quite high (50 percent) in their early series of adults as a result of erection and hematoma formation. The complication rate of their patient population, which is now mainly composed of preschool children, has decreased to 7 to 8 percent, primarily as a result of careful selection of appropriate techniques for each individual case, the development of better surgical materials and equipment, and taking necessary precautions for postoperative care. A brief summary of modern hypospadias repair techniques is presented in four major classes. The results of the authors’ 30-year experience and the precautions necessary to avoid postoperative complications are evaluated. The authors conclude that the four modern techniques and their modifications should be performed meticulously for successful hypospadias repair.
Istanbul and Ankara, Turkey
From the Departments of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of Yeditepe University Medical School and Ankara Research and Training Hospital.
Received for publication May 23, 2003; revised August 18, 2003.
Cihat N. Baran, M.D.
Guniz Sokak 29/7, 06700 Kavaklidere, Ankara, Turkey, firstname.lastname@example.org