Learning Objectives: After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Understand the history of nasal reconstruction and its implications to modern nasal repair. 2. Understand current developments in the use of intranasal lining flaps and primary cartilage grafts. 3. Understand the use of the two-stage and, specifically, the three-stage paramedian forehead flap with an intermediate operation. 4. Understand methods that allow the use of skin grafts and a modified folded forehead flap for lining. 5. Understand the use of regional unit reconstruction as it applies to repair of nasal defects.
Received for publication December 10, 2002.
Frederick J. Menick, M.D.
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