This study evaluated the effect of exogenous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on tendon healing and regulation of other growth factors in a rat Achilles tendon model. Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats were used. In the experimental group, the left Achilles tendon was transected and repaired with the modified Kessler suture technique, and the right Achilles tendon was transected and repaired with resection of plantaris tendon. VEGF, 100 μl (50 μg/ml), was injected into each tendon at the repair site. The same surgical procedures were performed in the control group, with the same volume of saline injected into the repair sites. At intervals of 1, 2, and 4 weeks, the animals were killed and the tendons were harvested and evaluated for tensile strength (1, 2, and 4 weeks) and gene expression (postoperative day 4). At 1 week postoperatively, when plantaris tendon was preserved, the tensile strength of the repaired tendons with VEGF treatment (3.63 ± 0.62 MPa) was significantly higher than the tensile strength of the repaired tendons with saline treatment (2.20 ± 0.36 MPa). There was no difference in tensile strength between the two groups without the plantaris tendon support. At 2 weeks postoperatively, the tensile strength was 11.34 ± 3.89 MPa in the group with VEGF treatment and plantaris tendon preservation, which was significantly higher than the tensile strength in the other groups. There was no significant difference in tensile strength among the groups at 4 weeks postoperatively. The gene expression showed that transforming growth factor-β in the VEGF-treated tendon was up-regulated in the early stage of tendon healing, whereas expression of platelet-derived growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor-1 was not significantly different among the groups. In conclusion, administration of exogenous VEGF can significantly improve tensile strength early in the course of the rat Achilles tendon healing and was associated with increased expression of transforming growth factor-β.