This study evaluated the effect of phenytoin (sodium diphenylhydantoin) on skin wound healing in a rat model. The study was divided into two parts. In part I, 20 μl of phenytoin (10 mg/ml) was subcutaneously injected into the 3-cm dorsal full-thickness incisional wounds of 14 rats on postoperative days 0, 3, and 6. Twelve rats that received saline injections were used as the controls. The skin samples were harvested and tested for tensile strength and histology. An additional 12 rats with the same incisional wounds were tested for chemokine gene expressions. In part II, 20 μl of phenytoin (10 mg/ml) was applied topically once a day on a 4 × 4 cm area of the open dorsal wounds of 10 rats. Saline was applied to the wounds of the 10 control group rats. The wounds were measured weekly. The results showed that the average tensile strength of the phenytoin-treated wound was 0.49 ± 0.08 MPa compared with the control group at 0.02 ± 0.01 MPa (p < 0.05). The density ratio of chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1) to β-actin in the phenytoin-treated group was also significantly higher than in the control group (p < 0.05). Histologic analysis of the phenytoin group showed a large amount of fibroblast proliferation, collagen synthesis, and neovascularization. Phenytoin-treated wounds were also smaller at 1 to 6 weeks postoperatively than the control group wounds. The authors conclude that the administration of phenytoin can promote wound healing and significantly increase MCP-1 expression. Phenytoin-treated wounds showed significant increase in collagen deposition and neovascularization, which resulted in an increased wound tensile strength and accelerated healing of both open and closed wounds.