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Distraction Osteogenesis in Correction of Micrognathia Accompanying Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

Wang, Xing M.D., Ph.D.; Wang, Xiao-Xia Ph.D., D.D.S.; Liang, Cheng D.D.S., M.S.; Yi, Biao M.D., D.D.S.; Lin, Ye Ph.D., D.D.S.; Li, Zi-Li M.D., D.D.S.

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery: November 2003 - Volume 112 - Issue 6 - p 1549-1557
doi: 10.1097/01.PRS.0000086734.74795.C4
Original Articles

To evaluate the effect of distraction osteogenesis in correction of micrognathia accompanying obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, a total of 28 patients with different severities of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome underwent mandibular distraction osteogenesis. A total of 51 distraction devices were placed for bilateral distraction in 23 patients and for unilateral distraction in five patients. The mean age of patients was 21.2 years (range, 3 to 60 years). Eleven patients had micrognathia accompanying obstructive sleep apnea syndrome secondary to bilateral temporomandibular joint ankylosis, and 10 patients had micrognathia accompanying obstructive sleep apnea syndrome secondary to unilateral temporomandibular joint ankylosis. Three patients had developmental micrognathia accompanying obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The other four patients had micrognathia and concomitant obstructive sleep apnea syndrome induced by trauma, infection, or tumor resection. Each patient had been evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively with cephalometry and polysomnography. Mandible advancement ranged from 9 to 30 mm (average, 20.4 mm) and was successfully achieved after distraction. Fine new bone formed in the distraction gap when the distraction devices were removed 3 to 4 months after distraction was completed. No infection or other complications occurred in any patients. Complete curative effects were achieved in nine severe, six moderate, and eight mild obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients after distraction, and the other five patients had been improved to the mild level. After distraction was completed, the posterior airway space was increased on average from 4.6 mm to 12.5 mm and the sella-nasion-point B angle was increased on average from 66 degrees to 75 degrees on cephalometric studies. The polysomnographic examination showed that the apnea hypopnea index was lowered on average from 58.0 to 3.15, and the lowest oxygen saturation was increased on average from 77 percent to 90.3 percent after distraction was completed. The follow-up period was 3 to 61 months (average, 18.1 months). The curative effect was stable and no relapse occurred. Therefore, the authors conclude that mandibular distraction osteogenesis is an effective method for correcting micrognathia accompanying obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Compared with other current routine surgical procedures, it has many advantages, such as low risk, simple manipulation, high curative rate, low relapse rate, and stable result. It is presently the most effective method for the treatment of this difficult and complicated disorder.

Beijing, People’s Republic of China

From the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Peking University, School of Stomatology.

Received for publication October 8, 2002;

revised January 10, 2003.

Xing Wang, M.D., Ph.D.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

Peking University

School of Stomatology

South Zhongguancun Avenue, 22

Beijing 100081

People’s Republic of China

Presented at the 16th European Craniomaxillofacial Surgery Congress, in Münster, Germany, September 5, 2002.

©2003American Society of Plastic Surgeons