: The authors report on their experience with a particular hydroxyapatite cement in the pediatric population and review cases that elucidate potential limitations of its use in this population. In all patients, the implant was used for recontouring and augmenting the cranial vault. Seven of 15 patients had a direct communication between sinus mucosa and the implant at the time of surgery. Three of the seven patients developed late postoperative inflammatory reactions of the surgical site with delamination of the implant. Each patient required an aggressive irrigation and debridement with removal of the delaminated hydroxyapatite. Pathologic findings showed evidence of a foreign body inflammatory reaction in the tissue, and mixed bacterial flora were identified in all specimens. No late problems with the cement were seen in patients without a communication to the sinuses. Our findings suggest that the use of BoneSource, an essentially nonviable, nonvascularized implant, in areas exposed to bacterial contamination is contraindicated in the pediatric population. BoneSource and other similar hydroxyapatite biomaterials do have a role as implants in the craniofacial skeleton. The indications and contraindications of these substances will need to be further defined for wide acceptance to occur.
(C)2002American Society of Plastic Surgeons