Although traits that are specific to different social and cultural groups may express the uniqueness in what humans regard as beautiful, the quest for beauty itself is universal. It is intrinsically related to the search for harmony as a means of achieving intimate well being. Inevitably, aging brings changes that are undesirable. The face, because of its exposure and expression and the constant action of gravity, is frequently the main focus of anxiety in individuals who have attained a certain age because their face has flaccid skin, marked lines of expression, and fat deposits. Motivations for surgery for the aging face are generally deeply hidden and include personal, social, and professional factors. These motivations might not be perceived or investigated by the surgeon who, in turn, will not have done a complete and precise diagnosis. This evaluation is the most valuable tool for determining the most favorable procedure for each patient.
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
From the Department of Plastic Surgery, the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, and the Carlos Chagas Institute of Postgraduate Medical Studies.
Received for publication July 1, 1999;
revised September 10, 1999.
Ivo Pitanguy, M.D. Rua Dona Mariana 65 Rio de Janeiro 22280-020, Brazil firstname.lastname@example.org http://www.pitanguy.com.br