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Botox for the Treatment of Dynamic and Hyperkinetic Facial Lines and Furrows: Adjunctive Use in Facial Aesthetic Surgery.

Fagien, Steven M.D.
Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery: February 1999
Topics in Cosmetic Surgery: PDF Only

: Our improved understanding of the pathophysiology of facial lines, wrinkles, and furrows has broadened the treatment options for a variety of facial cosmetic blemishes. The persistence or recurrence of certain facial rhytids after surgery has confirmed the lack of full comprehension of their origin. Glabellar forehead furrows (frown lines) and lateral canthal rhytids (crow's feet) have been the most popular facial lines that have been shown to be mostly the result of regional hyperkinetic muscles, and their eradication may be more suitable, at times, to chemodenervation than to soft-tissue fillers, skin resurfacing, or surgical resection. Aesthetic surgical procedures that have yielded suboptimal results may also occur from failure to recognize other causative factors including hyperkinetic or dynamic musculature, which may contribute to etiology of the visible soft-tissue changes and lack of persistent effect after surgery. Chemodenervation with botulinum toxin A (Botox) has proven to be useful both as a primary treatment for certain facial rhytids and as an adjunctive agent for a variety of facial aesthetic procedures to obtain optimal results. (Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 103: 701, 1999.)

(C)1999American Society of Plastic Surgeons