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Chest-Wall Contouring in Female-to-Male Transsexuals: Basic Considerations and Review of the Literature

Hage, J. Joris M.D., Ph.D.; van Kesteren, Paul J. M. M.D.
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery: August 1995
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In order to obtain satisfactory results in chest-wall contouring as part of gender-confirming surgery in female-to-male transsexuals, the surgeon should be aware of the differences between the female and male mammary anatomy and should take notice of the possible techniques to overcome these differences. So far, not much attention has been given to either.

The basic considerations involving reduction of breast tissue and skin excess, the proper reduction and positioning of the nipple-areola complex, the obliteration of the inframammary crease, and, where possible, the obviation of chest-wall scars are presented and discussed.

©1995American Society of Plastic Surgeons