Skip Navigation LinksHome > May 2013 - Volume 32 - Issue 5 > Changes in Patterns of Hospitalized Children With Varicella...
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal:
doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e31827e92b7
Vaccine Reports

Changes in Patterns of Hospitalized Children With Varicella and of Associated Varicella Genotypes After Introduction of Varicella Vaccine in Australia

Marshall, Helen S. MB BS, MD, MPH*†; McIntyre, Peter MB BS, FRACP, FAFPHM, PhD‡§¶; Richmond, Peter MB BS, MRCP, FRACP; Buttery, Jim P. FRACP, MSc** ††; Royle, Jenny A. MB BS, FRACP, MD**; Gold, Michael S. MD; Wood, Nicholas MB BS, FRACP, PhD‡§¶; Elliott, Elizabeth J. MD‡¶‡‡; Zurynski, Yvonne BAppSc, MAppSc, PhD¶‡‡; Toi, Cheryl S. PhD§§; Dwyer, Dominic E. MD, FRACP, FRCPA¶§§; Booy, Robert MB BS(Hons), MSc, MD, FRACP, FRCPCH‡§¶ ¶¶

Free Access
Supplemental Author Material
Article Outline
Collapse Box

Author Information

From the *The Vaccinology and Immunology Research Trials Unit, Women’s and Children’s Hospital; School of Paediatrics and Reproductive Health, the University of Adelaide, Adelaide; The Children’s Hospital at Westmead; §National Centre for Immunization Research and Surveillance; The University of Sydney, Sydney; Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Perth; **Department of General Medicine, Royal Children’s Hospital; ††Department of Infectious Diseases, Monash Children’s Hospital, SAEFVIC, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute, Department of Paediatrics, Monash University, Melbourne; ‡‡Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit; §§Clinical Virology, Centre for Infectious Disease and Microbiology Public Health, ICPMR, Westmead Hospital; and ¶¶Sydney Institute for Emerging Infections and Biosecurity, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Accepted for publication November 15, 2012.

The Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing provided funding for the study and the Centre for Infectious Disease and Microbiology Laboratory Services, Westmead for varicella genotyping. H.S.M. is supported by an NHMRC Career Development Fellowship No. 1016272. E.J.E. is supported by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (Practitioner Fellowships 457084 and 1021480). H.S.M. has been a member of vaccine advisory boards for Wyeth (Philadelphia, PA) and GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals (London, UK) and her institution has received funding for investigator led research from Novartis (Washington, DC), GlaxoSmithKline and Sanofi-Pasteur (Swiftwater, PA), and has received travel support from Pfizer, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals and CSL (King of Prussia, PA) to present scientific data at international meetings. P.C.R. has been a member of vaccineadvisory boards for Wyeth and Baxter (Indianapolis, IN) and has received funding for investigator initiated research from GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals and received travel support from Pfizer and Baxter to present study data at international meetings. R.B. is occasionally funded by organizations such as CSL, Roche (Indianapolis, IN), Sanofi, GSK, Novartis and Pfizer (Wyeth) to attend and present at scientific meetings. Any funding received is directed to a research account at The Children’s Hospital at Westmead and is not personally accepted. J.P.B.’s institution has received compensation for him serving on advisory or data safety monitoring boards for GSK and CSL, and funding for investigator led studies from CSL. D.E.D. has been a member of vaccine advisory boards for GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals. M.S.G., P.M., N.W., E.J.E., Y.Z., C.S.T. and J.A.R. have no conflict of interest to disclose. The authors have no other funding or conflicts of interest to disclose.

Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal’s website (www.pidj.com).

Address for correspondence: Helen S. Marshall, MB BS, MD, MPH, Vaccinology and Immunology Research Trials Unit, Discipline of Paediatrics, Women’s and Children’s Hospital, 2nd floor Clarence-Reiger Building, 72 King William Rd, North Adelaide 5006 South Australia, Australia. E-mail: helen.marshall@adelaide.edu.au.

Collapse Box

Abstract

Background: Varicella in children, although usually mild, can cause hospitalization and rarely death. This study examined patterns of hospitalized children with varicella, and associated varicella genotypes, in 4 tertiary children’s hospitals throughout Australia before and after varicella vaccine was introduced.

Methods: We obtained coded data on discharge diagnoses from each hospital before (1999 to 2001) and after (2007 to 2010) varicella vaccine introduction in 2005, adding active surveillance to capture clinical features, complications and immunization history in the latter period. Varicella vesicles were swabbed, and genotyping of varicella strains was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification.

Results: Overall, a 68% reduction in coded hospitalizations (varicella, 73.2% [P < 0.001]; zoster, 40% [P = 0.002]) occurred post-vaccine introduction. Of children with detailed clinical data (97 varicella and 18 zoster cases), 46 (40%) were immunocompromised. Only 6 of 32 (19%) age-eligible immunocompetent children were immunized. Complications, most commonly secondary skin infections (n = 25) and neurologic conditions (n = 14), occurred in 44% of children. There were no deaths; but 3 immunocompetent unimmunized children had severe multiple complications requiring intensive care. All strains genotyped were “wild-type” varicella, with Clade 1 (European origin) predominating.

Conclusions: After the introduction of varicella vaccine, coverage of greater than 80% at 2 years of age was achieved, with varicella hospitalizations reduced by almost 70%. Of hospitalized children age-eligible for varicella vaccine, 80% were unimmunized, including all cases requiring intensive care.

Varicella is a highly contagious infection spread by air-borne transmission or contact with vesicle fluid from skin lesions.1 Varicella is often more severe in immunocompromised children who are at risk of complications due to increasing use of immunosuppressive therapies.2,3 In the prevaccine era, more than 5% of children hospitalized with complicated varicella developed long-term sequelae.4 Congenital and neonatal varicella are uncommon, but may have severe consequences.5 Before the availability of varicella vaccine in Australia from 2001, an estimated 240,000 varicella cases, 1500 hospitalizations and 1–16 deaths from varicella occurred annually.6–8 Decline in varicella hospitalizations9 and deaths10 has been observed in the United States, as have reductions in community and hospitalized cases in Australia,11 since introduction of the vaccine.

Two varicella vaccines, Varilrix (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, London, UK) and VARIVAX (Merck & Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ), have been licensed in Australia since 2001. Both contain preparations of the live attenuated Oka strain, first isolated in Japan.7 Although varicella vaccine was recommended for universal use in children from 2003,7 it was not made available free of charge on Australia’s National Immunisation Program until November 2005. Under the National Immunisation Program, varicella vaccine is available as a single dose for children at 18months of age or 10–13 years of age, the latter as a school-based program for children who have not previously been infected or immunized.7

Accurate surveillance of varicella postvaccine is challenging as disease is common and usually diagnosed clinically rather than by laboratory tests such as viral isolation or nucleic acid testing. Hospitalization data based on discharge diagnoses coded as varicella are available retrospectively,8,12 but have limitations and do not include data on immunization status.

In 2007, the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance project was established to conduct active surveillance of children hospitalized with conditions of public health importance, including varicella. The design of the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance project was modeled on the Canadian CPS Immunization Monitoring Program, Active system, but additionally includes capacity to obtain diagnostic specimens after consent.13,14

The occurrence of “vaccine escape” genotypes of varicella is a key question in immunized breakthrough cases,15,16 with little information available on the distribution of varicella genotypes and their relationship to virulence in Australia or elsewhere.17

The aim of this study was to obtain detailed clinical data on varicella cases after introduction of a funded program with high coverage in Australia, for comparison with historical data, with a special focus on immunization status and genotypes of varicella.

Back to Top | Article Outline

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Case Definition and Ascertainment

Active surveillance for varicella was established in major tertiary pediatric hospitals in 4 Australian states (Royal Children’s Hospital, Victoria; The Children’s Hospital at Westmead, New South Wales; Women’s and Children’s Hospital South Australia; and Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Western Australia, Australia). A research nurse at each hospital prospectively monitored varicella admissions and laboratory requests for inpatient varicella testing for a 3-year period from August 1, 2007, by reviewing admission records and from contact with clinical staff, as described elsewhere.14

The case definition was hospitalization related to varicella or zoster and age from 1 month to 15 years. Cases were enrolled after parental consent was obtained. Only cases deemed to have in-hospital complications were enrolled in the first year of the study; thereafter ascertainment was expanded to include all hospitalizations. Demographic and clinical data, including medical and immunization history, were verified using the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR)18 and complications identified in hospital were obtained using a standardized questionnaire.

In addition, data on discharge diagnoses with International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision codes (B01, B02 and subcategories) at the 4 hospitals during the study period and for a 3-year comparison period (1999 to 2001) before the availability of varicella vaccine in Australia were obtained. The period 1999 to 2001 coincided with a previous study of clinical features of varicella hospitalizations at one of the participating hospitals.12

Back to Top | Article Outline
Clinical Specimens

Vesicular fluid was obtained by swabbing the base of a deroofed vesicle. Samples were analyzed at the Center for Infectious Disease and Microbiology Laboratory Services, a State-based reference virology laboratory at Westmead Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Genotyping of varicella strains was conducted by real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification using Evagreen (Biotium, Hayward, CA) on the Corbett Rotor-Gene 6000 (Qiagen, Victoria, Australia). The wild-type strains and vaccine strain (vOka) were differentiated by single-nucleotide polymorphism detection using high resolution melt analysis of 5 gene targets (Orf1, 21, 37, 60 and 62) and DNA sequence analysis of ORF22, using a method previously described.17,19 Varicella-zoster genotypes were classified according to the new universal nomenclature proposed for varicella-zoster virus clades and compared with previously reported circulating varicella genotypes.19,20

Back to Top | Article Outline
Statistical Analysis

Data were analyzed and presented as summary descriptive statistics using Stata (version 10.1; StataCorp, College Station, TX). Comparison of proportions between groups was made using the χ2 test and Kruskal–Wallis test. Statistical tests were two-tailed with a significance level of 5%.

Back to Top | Article Outline

RESULTS

Hospitalizations Coded as Varicella or Zoster Pre- and Post-vaccine Introduction

In Australia, all children have equal access to the public hospital system through a government-supported fund, Medicare. The number of hospitalizations was stable over the study time period at the 4 participating centers.

In the 4 hospitals, 710 hospital episodes had a discharge diagnosis of varicella (598) or zoster (112) in the 3-year period 1999 to 2001. In the 3 years of active surveillance, 2007 to 2010, after introduction of funded varicella immunization at 18 months of age at the end of 2005, 227 hospital episodes (varicella, 160 and zoster, 67) were identified from International Classification of Diseases discharge codes at the same hospitals (Fig. 1). This was a reduction of 73.2% for varicella (P < 0.001) and 40% for zoster (P = 0.002) hospitalizations. Post-vaccine introduction, 70.5% of total varicella-related hospitalizations were coded as varicella, compared with 84.2% in the prevaccine era (P < 0.001).

Figure 1
Figure 1
Image Tools
Back to Top | Article Outline
Characteristics of Study Patients

Of 880 children screened prospectively for varicella or zoster, 137 met the case definition and 115 (varicella, 97 and zoster, 18) were enrolled, which was 60.6% and 26.9% of the number of International Classification of Diseases-coded varicella and zoster cases, respectively. The median age of hospitalized children was 6 years and 6 months with a range of 33 days to 15 years and 7 months (interquartile range [IQR]: 2.1–9.0 years; Fig. 2). The median age at diagnosis for varicella was 6 years and 1 month with an age range of 1 month to 15 years and for zoster was 10 years and 9 months with an age range of 4–14 years. There was an equal distribution of males (51%, n = 59) and females (49%, n = 56).

Figure 2
Figure 2
Image Tools
Back to Top | Article Outline
Children Less Than 18 Months of Age

Twenty-four children (24.7%) too young to be eligible for the funded immunization program were identified—8 were aged 1–6 months, 10 were aged 7–12 months and 6 were aged 13–17 months. The length of stay ranged from 1 to 10 days, and none required admission to an intensive care unit. However, most (79%, n = 19) had complications during their hospitalization. These included a 5-month-old infant diagnosed with encephalopathy by the treating physician, and hospitalized for 8 days, and an 8-month-old child who required debridement of infected skin lesions. Two children were immunocompromised, one with neutropenia of unknown cause and the other was postchemotherapy for a neuroblastoma.

Back to Top | Article Outline
Immune Status

Immunodeficiency or immunosuppression after therapy was identified in 46 children (40%) including children with a malignancy (acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Ewing tumor), receiving chemotherapy, post-bone marrow transplantation or long-term steroid use. These children had a median age of 8.1 years (IQR: 5.4–10.9) and were significantly older than immunocompetent children who had a median age of 5.1 years (IQR: 1.3–7.7; Kruskal–Wallis P < 0.001). A higher proportion of children with a diagnosis of zoster (77.8%) were immunodeficient compared with those with varicella (33%).

Back to Top | Article Outline
Varicella Immunization

Confirmed varicella vaccines included Varilrix vaccine (n = 11) and VARIVAX vaccine (n = 1) in 12 (10.4%) of the 115 hospitalized children (Fig. 3). No child had received 2 doses of vaccine.

Figure 3
Figure 3
Image Tools

Of the immunocompetent children, 32 were eligible by age for the funded varicella vaccine, but only 6 (18.8%) were immunized, including a child who received varicella vaccine aged 16months rather than at the scheduled 18-month immunization time point. The 6 vaccinated children were aged 16 months to 7years and 4 months. None of the 6 immunized children required intensive care management, but 3 developed cellulitis. All were discharged between 2 and 6 days (median = 2 days) postadmission compared with 1–58 days (median = 2 days) for unimmunized children. No child more than 9 years of age was immunized against varicella.

Of the 46 immunocompromised children, 6 (13%) had previously received a varicella vaccine. In previously immunized children, the median interval between varicella immunization and hospitalization was 2.2 years with an age range of 42 days to 7 years; longer intervals were observed for immunocompromised children (Fig. 4). The mean duration of hospitalization for all children was 5.6 days (6.5 days for previously immunized children and 5.6 days for children not immunized against varicella). The median duration of hospitalization was 3.0 days irrespective of immunization status, but the range was wider for children who were not immunized (1–58 days) compared with those who were immunized (2–34 days). The median length of stay for immunocompromised children was 5 days compared with 2 days in immunocompetent children (Kruskal–Wallis test P < 0.001).

Figure 4
Figure 4
Image Tools
Back to Top | Article Outline
Varicella Contacts

A history of contact with other infected children was obtained for 67 children (58.3%). Where documented (n = 46), the majority of contacts (n = 25) were at school or preschool, or family members (n = 21).

Back to Top | Article Outline
Antiviral Therapy

A total of 65 children (56.5%) received antiviral therapy, including aciclovir (n = 60), valaciclovir (n = 3) and famciclovir (n = 2); 93% of immunocompromised children (43/46) versus 32% (22/69) of immunocompetent children (χ2 test; P < 0.001). Nine immunocompromised children received zoster immunoglobulin. The median duration of hospitalization for immunocompetent children who received antiviral therapy was not significantly higher (3days; IQR: 2–6 days) than for those who did not receive antivirals (median = 2 days; IQR: 2–3 days; Kruskal–Wallis test P = 0.276).

Back to Top | Article Outline
Varicella Complications

Complications were identified more commonly in varicella (44%, n = 43/97) than zoster (27.8%, n = 5/18) hospitalizations, with a total of 73 complications recorded by treating physician (Table 1). The most common varicella complications were secondary skin infection (25, 25.8 %) and neurological problems (14, 14.4%), including 8 children with seizures. All 3 children admitted to intensive care were immunocompetent and had severe multiple complications and ongoing problems at discharge (Table, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/INF/B427); 2 were infected by siblings, all survived.

Table 1
Table 1
Image Tools
Back to Top | Article Outline
Recurrent Varicella

Of children hospitalized with varicella, 15 (15.5%) were reported by parents as having had varicella at an earlier age of whom 11 of 15 (73%) had an underlying immunodeficiency condition, significantly more than for immunocompetent children (Fisher exact P = 0.027).

Back to Top | Article Outline
Varicella Genotyping

Vesicular fluid collected for varicella virus isolation in 58% (n = 66) of cases was used for genotyping to identify circulating varicella virus genotypes and any mutations of the vaccine strain. In some cases, no vesicle fluid could be obtained because the vesicles had healed by the time the child was hospitalized. Varicella genotyping showed all viruses isolated were “wild-type” strains. Clade 1 was the most prevalent genotype, occurring in all 4 states, followed in frequency by Clades 5 and 3. A single recombinant genotype was identified in Western Australia (Fig. 5).

Figure 5
Figure 5
Image Tools
Back to Top | Article Outline

DISCUSSION

In all participating hospitals, a reduction of more than 70% in hospital admissions coded at discharge as related to varicella was found. The accuracy of coded data for varicella and zoster has previously been demonstrated in a study at one of the hospitals,12 and this reduction is in keeping with the vaccine coverage of 81.8% among children eligible for the funded dose of varicella vaccine at 18 months of age in 2009.21 However, it is in stark contrast to the 18% of children hospitalized with varicella in the eligible age group who had received varicella vaccine, which suggests a high effectiveness of the vaccine in preventing hospitalization as documented in the United States.9,10 The reduction in cases coded as zoster at discharge was less at 40% but many of these were either immunocompromised (78%) or too old to be eligible for the funded vaccine program.

Complicated varicella in hospitalized cases occurred less frequently (43%) than the only detailed clinical report from the prevaccine era in Australia (57%)12 and a similar report from the Netherlands (76%).22 A larger proportion of children hospitalized for varicella had underlying immunodeficiency (40%) compared with the 16% reported from the pre-varicella vaccine era in this previously reported study from one of the participating hospitals, but the proportion of zoster cases who were immunocompromised did not change (78% versus 74%).12

Compared with this same report, the average age of children on admission in our study increased to 5 years 6 months from 4 years 2 months for varicella and for zoster to 10 years 9 months compared with 9 years 9 months.12 We also identified recurrent varicella, based on parental report, in 15 children, most of whom were immunocompromised, compared with no reported recurrent varicella cases in the prevaccine era study. Contributing factors to the high proportion of immunocompromised children admitted with varicella include increased susceptibility to severe disease, coupled with a lower threshold for admission23 and in some cases varicella vaccine being contraindicated. Enhancing protection for this vulnerable group will require both increased immunization coverage and herd immunity to varicella, in addition to encouraging household contacts to be immunized.

No varicella deaths were reported during the study period at any of the 4 hospitals compared with 2 deaths from the one hospital in the 1999 to 2001 prevaccine period, but the proportion of previously healthy children admitted to intensive care (3/69, 4.6% versus 5/123, 4.1%) was similar.12 It is known that exposure to varicella in a sibling may lead to more severe disease, and 2 of the 3 cases requiring intensive care acquired varicella from household contacts.24

Varicella genotype diversity remains unchanged since the introduction of varicella vaccine. Several studies have demonstrated a regional dominance of specific varicella genotypes, most likely influenced by environmental factors, travel and migration.25 We found much greater strain diversity than that reported from Europe, Africa and North America. In previous Australian studies, Clade 1 (European) predominated (46–53%) followed by Clade 3 (21–24%), Clade 5 (8–12%), Clade 2 (6–12%), Clade 4 (3–10%) and Clade VI (5%).17,26 Although these previous studies were not as nationally representative as our study, our results are consistent with these findings and show no evidence of “vaccine pressure.” A higher diversity of genotypes was evident in New South Wales and Western Australia compared with Victoria and South Australia, although the number of samples collected in these latter states was low. There is a potential for recombination events between wild-type and vaccine viruses17 and the possibility of circulating “vaccine escape” genotypes, emphasizing the importance of continuing surveillance and monitoring of varicella genotypes in the postvaccine era. A newly recognized single-nucleotide polymorphism in ORF0 of varicella vaccine strains (including VARIVAX and Varilrix), that is not present in wild-type strains has recently been identified.27 ORF0 is a likely determinant of attenuation and should be incorporated into classification schemes identifying putative clades. Continued surveillance with varicella genotyping to identify new mutations is of importance in informing immunization strategies. Continued molecular surveillance provides an opportunity to identify genotypes associated with more severe disease or affecting immunocompromised children. Importantly, there were no hospitalized cases due to vaccine-related genotypes, suggesting that any vaccine-associated disease is subclinical or mild.

Less than 20% of immunocompetent children hospitalized with varicella had previously received a varicella vaccine. Although one dose of varicella vaccine provides good protection against severe disease,28 our study found that cases that were severe enough to require hospitalization can occur despite immunization, as described by others.29,30

Giving varicella vaccine at 12 months instead of 18 months of age could have potentially prevented an additional 5% of cases in our series. There was a history of contact with other infected children for more than half of the children hospitalized, and there is unrealized potential for prevention of these cases if they had been offered varicella vaccine postexposure,31 or if there had been a catch-up immunization for children aged more than 18 months and less than 10 years in Australia. Encouraging varicella immunization for all immunocompetent children with an emphasis on timeliness should reduce the number of hospitalized cases in Australia and better protect those who are vulnerable to the infection but unable to be immunized. From 2013, a combination measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine will be given at 18 months of age in the Australian National Immunisation Program, linked to receipt of family tax benefits and this could improve coverage of one dose of varicella vaccine.

Not all breakthrough varicella cases are mild, as demonstrated in our data with 6 hospitalized cases among 68 hospitalized immunocompetent children and 4 cases in immunocompromised children. Breakthrough disease is considered to be the result of waning immunity after single-dose immunization. A second dose of vaccine is likely to provide a robust immune memory response in immunized children whose initial response was inadequate and provide additional protection to primary nonresponders.32,33 As most breakthrough disease occurred within 3 years of immunization, our data suggest the timing of the second dose should be soon after the first dose (1–2 months). Although recommended in Australia, a two-dose schedule for children is not currently funded, and our data suggest that the most important objective should be to improve 1-dose coverage.

The results of our study support the need for increased awareness about severe varicella in the community and vaccination providers. Previous studies have shown a lack of parental knowledge about varicella vaccination, but considerable concern about children acquiring the infection.34 Immunization of children who were ineligible by age or missed out on the funded program should be encouraged.35

Surveillance of varicella after introduction of the vaccine is important for investigating changes in epidemiology, viral evolution, host–virus interactions and the role of travel in importation of new viral strains, as well as for identifying possible vaccine escape genotypes.26,36 This information can inform changes to immunization policy, practice and immunization schedules to benefit the health of children and particularly those most vulnerable to severe disease.

Back to Top | Article Outline

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors acknowledge the families who have given of their time to be involved in surveillance research, the dedicated staff of the 4 pediatric hospitals in collecting and collating data and the many collaborative physicians who have supported the study. The authors also acknowledge the help of Ms. Kate Dowling in the statistical analysis.

Back to Top | Article Outline

REFERENCES

1. Arvin A, Abendroth AArvin A, Campadelli-Fiume G, Mocarski E. VZV: Immunobiology and host response. In: Human Herpesviruses: Biology, Therapy, and Immunoprophylaxis. 2007 Cambridge, UK Cambridge University Press:700–712

2. Choo PW, Donahue JG, Manson JE, et al. The epidemiology of varicella and its complications. J Infect Dis. 1995;172:706–712

3. Atkinson W, Harrison S, Wolfe C, et al. Varicella. Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. 20027th ed Atlanta, GA Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

4. Ziebold C, von Kries R, Lang R, et al. Severe complications of varicella in previously healthy children in Germany: a 1-year survey. Pediatrics. 2001;108:E79

5. Khandaker G, Marshall H, Peadon E, et al. Congenital and neonatal varicella: Impact of the national varicella immunisation program in Australia. Arch Dis Child. 2011;96:453–456

6. Chant KG, Sullivan EA, Burgess MA, et al. Varicella-zoster virus infection in Australia. Aust N Z J Public Health. 1998;22:413–418

7. National Health, Medical Research Council.The Australian Immunisation Handbook. 20089th ed Canberra, Australia Australian Government Publishing Service

8. McIntyre P, Gidding H, Gilmour R, et al. Vaccine preventable diseases and immunisation coverage in Australia, 1999–2000. Commun Dis Intell. 2002;26:S1–111

9. Seward JF, Watson BM, Peterson CL, et al. Varicella disease after introduction of varicella vaccine in the United States, 1995-2000. JAMA. 2002;287:606–611

10. Nguyen HQ, Jumaan AO, Seward JF. Decline in mortality due to varicella after implementation of varicella vaccination in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:450–458

11. Carville KS, Riddell MA, Kelly HA. A decline in varicella but an uncertain impact on zoster following varicella vaccination in Victoria, Australia. Vaccine. 2010;28:2532–2538

12. Carapetis JR, Russell DM, Curtis N. The burden and cost of hospitalised varicella and zoster in Australian children. Vaccine. 2004;23:755–761

13. Scheifele DW, Halperin SAand members of the Health Canada/CPS Immunization Monitoring Program, Active (IMPACT). . A model of active surveillance of vaccine safety. Sem Ped Infect Dis. 2003;14:213–219

14. Pym M, Adams J, Booy R, et al. The development and trial of Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS): a new surveillance mechanism for Australia. J Paediatr Child Health. 2008;44:A16

15. Peadon E, Burgner D, Nissen M, et al. Case for varicella surveillance in Australia. J Paediatr Child Health. 2006;42:663–664

16. LaRussa P, Steinberg S, Arvin A, et al. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of varicella-zoster virus isolates from the United States and other parts of the world. J Infect Dis. 1998;178(suppl 1):S64–S66

17. Toi CS, Dwyer DE. Differentiation between vaccine and wild-type varicella-zoster virus genotypes by high-resolution melt analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms. J Clin Virol. 2008;43:18–24

18. Australian Government. Department of Human Services. . Australian Childhood Immunisation Register. Available at: http://www.humanservices.gov.au/customer/services/medicare/australian-childhood-immunisation-register. Accessed August 2007.

19. Toi CS, Dwyer DE. Prevalence of varicella-zoster virus genotypes in Australia characterized by high-resolution melt analysis and ORF22 gene analyses. J Med Microbiol. 2010;59(pt 8):935–940

20. Breuer J, Grose C, Norberg P, et al. A proposal for a common nomenclature for viral clades that form the species varicella-zoster virus: summary of VZV Nomenclature Meeting 2008, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, 24–25 July 2008. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:821–828

21. Hull B, Dey A, Mahajan D, et al. Immunisation coverage annual report, 2009. Commun Dis Intell. 2011;35:132–148

22. van Lier A, van der Maas NA, Rodenburg GD, et al. Hospitalization due to varicella in the Netherlands. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:85

23. Wiegering V, Schick J, Beer M, et al. Varicella-zoster virus infections in immunocompromised patients - a single centre 6-years analysis. BMC Pediatr. 2011;11:31

24. Ross AH, Lechner E, Reitman G. Modification of chickenpox in family contacts by administration of gammaglobulin. N Engl J Med. 1962;267:369–376

25. Schmidt-Chanasit J, Sauerbrei A. Evolution and world-wide distribution of varicella-zoster virus clades. Infect Genet Evol. 2011;11:1–10

26. Loparev VN, Rubtcova EN, Bostik V, et al. Identification of five major and two minor genotypes of varicella-zoster virus strains: a practical two-amplicon approach used to genotype clinical isolates in Australia and New Zealand. J Virol. 2007;81:12758–12765

27. Peters GA, Tyler SD, Carpenter JE, et al. The attenuated genotype of varicella-zoster virus includes an ORF0 transitional stop codon mutation. JVirol. 2012;86:10695–10703

28. Vázquez M, LaRussa PS, Gershon AA, et al. The effectiveness of the varicella vaccine in clinical practice. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:955–960

29. Kuter B, Matthews H, Shinefield H, et al.Study Group for Varivax. Ten year follow-up of healthy children who received one or two injections of varicella vaccine. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004;23:132–137

30. Lopez AS, Guris D, Zimmerman L, et al. One dose of varicella vaccine does not prevent school outbreaks: is it time for a second dose? Pediatrics. 2006;117:e1070–e1077

31. Macartney K, McIntyre P. Vaccines for post-exposure prophylaxis against varicella (chickenpox) in children and adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;16:CD001833

32. Wutzler P, Knuf M, Liese J. Varicella: Efficacy of two-dose immunization in childhood. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2008;105:567–572

33. Shapiro ED, Vazquez M, Esposito D, et al. Effectiveness of 2 doses of varicella vaccine in children. J Infect Dis. 2011;203:312–315

34. Marshall H, Ryan P, Roberton D. Uptake of varicella vaccine–a cross sectional survey of parental attitudes to nationally recommended but unfunded varicella immunisation. Vaccine. 2005;23:5389–5397

35. Marshall H, Ryan P, Roberton D, et al. Varicella immunisation practice: Implications for provision of a recommended, non-funded vaccine. J Paediatr Child Health. 2009;45:297–303

36. Gutzeit C, Raftery MJ, Peiser M, et al. Identification of an important immunological difference between virulent varicella-zoster virus and its avirulent vaccine: viral disruption of dendritic cell instruction. J Immunol. 2010;185:488–497

varicella; immunization; immunocompromised; hospitalization; pediatric

Cited By:

This article has been cited 1 time(s).

Lancet
EV71 vaccine: protection from a previously neglected disease
Crawford, NW; Graham, SM
Lancet, 381(): 1968-1970.
10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61124-1
CrossRef
Back to Top | Article Outline

Supplemental Digital Content

Back to Top | Article Outline

© 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

Login

Search for Similar Articles
You may search for similar articles that contain these same keywords or you may modify the keyword list to augment your search.