Twenty-one children with confirmed herpes simplex encephalitis were identified in the California Encephalitis Project. Noteworthy features included 6 (29%) patients with an initial negative herpes simplex virus cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction test and 13 (59%) patients with extratemporal lobe involvement identified by neuroimaging. Eleven cases were <4 years of age, but all 4 fatal cases occurred in adolescents.
From the *Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco; †Communicable Disease and Emergency Response Branch, Division of Communicable Disease Control, Center for Infectious Diseases, California Department of Public Health, Richmond; ‡California Epidemiologic Investigation Service (Cal-EIS), California Department of Public Health, Sacramento, CA; §National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; ¶Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory, Division of Communicable Disease Control, Center for Infectious Diseases, California Department of Public Health, Richmond, CA; and ‖Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Herpesvirus Laboratory Branch, Division of Viral Diseases, Office of Infectious Diseases, National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
Financial support was by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Emerging Infections Program (U50/CCU915546-09).
The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services.
The authors have no other funding or conflicts of interest to disclose.
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Address for correspondence: Tu My To, MPH, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, 185 Berry Street, Lobby 5, Suite 5700, San Francisco, CA 94107. E-mail email@example.com.