Skip Navigation LinksHome > November 2014 - Volume 33 - Issue 11 > Vitamin D Insufficiency in HIV-infected Pregnant Women Recei...
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal:
doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000000428
HIV Reports

Vitamin D Insufficiency in HIV-infected Pregnant Women Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy is Not Associated With Morbidity, Mortality or Growth Impairment in Their Uninfected Infants in Botswana

Powis, Kathleen MD, MPH*†‡; Lockman, Shahin MD, MSc†‡§; Smeaton, Laura MS; Hughes, Michael D. PhD; Fawzi, Wafaie MBBS, DrPH; Ogwu, Anthony MBBS; Moyo, Sikhulile MSc, MPH; van Widenfelt, Erik; von Oettingen, Julia MD**; Makhema, Joseph MB, ChB, MRCP; Essex, Max DVM, PhD†‡; Shapiro, Roger L. MD, MPH†‡††

Supplemental Author Material
Collapse Box


Background: Low maternal 25(OH)D (vitamin D) values have been associated with higher mortality and impaired growth among HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants of antiretroviral (ART)-naive women. These associations have not been studied among HEU infants of women receiving ART.

Methods: We performed a nested case-control study in the Botswana Mma Bana Study, a study providing ART to women during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Median maternal vitamin D values, and the proportion with maternal vitamin D insufficiency, were compared between women whose HEU infants experienced morbidity/mortality during 24 months of follow-up and women with nonhospitalized HEU infants. Growth faltering was assessed for never hospitalized infants attending the 24-month-of-life visit. Multivariate logistic regression models determined associations between maternal vitamin D insufficiency and infant morbidity/mortality and growth faltering.

Results: Delivery plasma was available and vitamin D levels assayable from 119 (86%) of 139 cases and 233 (84%) of 278 controls, and did not differ significantly between cases and controls [median: 36.7 ng/mL, interquartile range (IQR): 29.1–44.7 vs. 37.1 ng/mL, IQR: 30.0–47.2, P = 0.32]. Vitamin D insufficiency (<32 ng/mL) was recorded among 112 (31.8%) of 352 women at delivery and occurred most frequently among women delivering in winter. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for maternal HIV disease progression did not show associations between maternal vitamin D insufficiency at delivery and child morbidity/mortality, or 24-month-of-life growth faltering.

Conclusions: Vitamin D insufficiency was common among ART-treated pregnant women in Botswana, but was not associated with morbidity, mortality or growth impairment in their HIV-uninfected children.

© 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.


Article Tools


Article Level Metrics

Search for Similar Articles
You may search for similar articles that contain these same keywords or you may modify the keyword list to augment your search.