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Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal:
doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000000219
Original Studies

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease in Preterm Infants in the US Born at 32–35 Weeks Gestation Not Receiving Immunoprophylaxis

Ambrose, Christopher S. MD*; Anderson, Evan J. MD; Simões, Eric A. F. MBBS, DCH, MD; Wu, Xionghua PhD§; Elhefni, Hanaa MD, MS, MPH§; Park, C. Lucy MD; Sifakis, Frangiscos PhD, MPH§||; Groothuis, Jessie R. MD§

Open Access
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Abstract

Background:

The Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Respiratory Events Among Preterm Infants Outcomes and Risk Tracking (REPORT) study evaluated RSV disease burden in US preterm infants 32–35 weeks gestational age (wGA) not receiving RSV prophylaxis.

Methods:

Preterm infants <6 months of age as of November 1st were followed prospectively at 188 clinics from September to May 2009–2010 or 2010–2011. Nasal and pharyngeal swabs were collected for medically attended acute respiratory illnesses (MAARI) and tested for RSV by qRT-polymerase chain reaction. Risk factors were assessed using multivariate Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for seasonality.

Results:

Of 1642 evaluable infants, 287 experienced RSV MAARI. Rates of RSV-related MAARI, outpatient lower respiratory tract illness, emergency department visits and hospitalization (RSVH) during November to March were 25.4, 13.7, 5.9 and 4.9 per 100 infant-seasons, respectively. Preschool-aged, nonmultiple-birth siblings and daycare attendance were consistently associated with increased risk of RSV. RSVH rates were highest in infants 32–34 and 35 wGA who were <6 months of age during November to March with daycare attendance or nonmultiple-birth, preschool-aged siblings (8.9 and 9.3 per 100 infant-seasons, respectively, versus 3.5 for all other infants, P<0.001). Chronologic age <3 months was associated with a higher RSVH rate for infants 35 wGA but not for infants 32–34 wGA.

Conclusions:

In US preterm infants who were 32–35 wGA, <6 months on November 1st and not receiving RSV prophylaxis, the burden of RSV MAARI was 25 per 100 infant-seasons. The highest RSVH rates occurred among those with daycare attendance or nonmultiple-birth, preschool-aged siblings while they were <6 months of age during the RSV season.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.

Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

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