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High Prevalence of Abacavir-associated L74V/I Mutations in Kenyan Children Failing Antiretroviral Therapy

Dziuban, Eric J. MD, DTM*; DeVos, Joshua MPH*; Ngeno, Bernadette MB ChB, MMed; Ngugi, Evelyn MB ChB, MPH; Zhang, Guoqing PhD*; Sabatier, Jennifer MSc*; Wagar, Nick BS*; Diallo, Karidia PhD*; Nganga, Lucy MB ChB, MMed; Katana, Abraham MB ChB, MSc; Yang, Chunfu DVM, PhD*; Rivadeneira, Emilia D. MD*; Mukui, Irene MB ChB, MPH; Odhiambo, Francesca MB ChB, MMed§; Redfield, Robert MD§; Raizes, Elliot MD*

Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal: August 2017 - Volume 36 - Issue 8 - p 758–760
doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000001597
HIV Reports

Abstract: A survey of 461 HIV-infected Kenyan children receiving antiretroviral therapy found 143 (31%) failing virologically. Drug resistance mutations were found in 121; 37 had L74V/I mutations, with 95% receiving abacavir (ABC)-containing regimens. L74V/I was associated with current ABC usage (P = 0.0001). L74V/I may be more prevalent than previously realized in children failing ABC-containing regimens, even when time on treatment has been short. Ongoing rigorous pediatric drug resistance surveillance is needed.

From the *US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Division of Global HIV/AIDS, Atlanta, Georgia; US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Division of Global HIV/AIDS, Nairobi, Kenya; National AIDS & STI Control Programme, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya; and §Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland.

Accepted for publication November 19, 2016.

Funded by the US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief through a contract between the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Division of Global HIV/AIDS and Westat (#200-2011-37926).

The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the official position of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or the Government of Kenya.

The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.

Address for correspondence: Evelyn Ngugi, MB ChB, MPH, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Division of Global HIV/AIDS, KEMRI HQ, Mbagathi Way off Mbagathi Road, P.O. Box 606, 00621, Nairobi, Kenya. E-mail: uys7@cdc.gov.

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