The aims of this study were to analyze the viral load and CD4+ lymphocyte outcomes and the concentration-response of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) in the treatment of HIV-1–infected antiretroviral-naive children, to determine whether current dosing guidelines for LPV/r achieve Ctrough above 1.0 mg/L for naive patients to compare efficacy of World Health Organization 2010 and Food and Drug Administration dosing recommendations.
Clinical and biologic examinations were performed before treatment, 1 month, 3 months and then every 3 months in 47 antiretroviral-naive children who started an LPV/r-based regimen. LPV concentrations were also monitored on a routine basis, after 2 weeks of treatment initiation, between 1 and 24 hours after dosing in all children. A population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis was performed using an HIV dynamic model. Simulations of World Health Organization 2010 and Food and Drug Administration dosing recommendations were compared in terms of viral suppression.
The HIV dynamic model adequately described the data. According to the concentration-effect curve, the LPV concentration providing 90% (CLPV90) and 95% (CLPV95) of effect were 1.2 and 2.4 mg/L, respectively. The World Health Organization 2010 guidelines should provide a higher probability of viral success, particularly in infants.
The CLPV90 derived from this model supports current dosing guidelines. However, the target of 2.4 mg/L corresponding to CLPV95 could be used to enhance the efficacy of this drug in treatment-naive children.