Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most frequent severe bacterial infection in infants. Up to 31% of infants with UTI have bacteremia.
We retrospectively identified all infants aged 0–2 months who were managed in our hospital with UTI during a 1-year period. Those with bacteremia were compared with those without bacteremia, according to the following variables: ethnicity, age, gender, white blood cell and polymorphonuclear counts, C-reactive protein, urinalysis and blood creatinine values as related to age-appropriate norms, imaging and outcome.
We identified 81 infants with 82 episodes of UTI. Most occurred in males (72.8%) and 35 (42.7%) were in infants of non-Jewish origin. In 14/81 (17.3%) of episodes, Escherichia coli was cultured from blood. In multivariate analysis, increased blood creatinine levels (P = 0.004) and non-Jewish origin (P = 0.006) were associated with bacteremia. Time to defervescence was significantly longer in bacteremic versus nonbacteremic children (P = 0.018). Duration of hospitalization was longer in bacteremic infants—10 (7–17) days in bacteremic versus 7 (1–14) days in nonbacteremic children (P < 0.001).
In infants aged 0–2 months with UTI, increased blood creatinine value at admission was associated with bacteremia. This value provides an additional clue on admission, independent of personal judgment, to help identify infants at higher risk for bacteremia, prolonged hospitalization and possible complications.