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Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal:
doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000000229
Pathogenesis and Host Response

Polymorphisms in IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ and TGF-β1 Genes and Susceptibility to Acute Otitis Media in Early Infancy

Ilia, Stavroula MD*; Goulielmos, George N. MD, PhD; Samonis, George MD, PhD; Galanakis, Emmanouil MD, PhD*

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Abstract

Background:

Genetic susceptibility has a major role in the pathogenesis of acute otitis media (AOM). In the present study, we investigated the variability of 5 cytokine genotypes as related to susceptibility and outcome of AOM in early infancy.

Methods:

Single nucleotide polymorphisms in IL-6 (–174 GC), IL-10 (–592 CA, –819 CT and –1082 GA), TNF-α (–308 GA), IFN-γ (+874 AT) and TGF-β1 (codon 10 CT; codon 25 GC) genes were investigated and related to clinical course and outcome in 96 infants younger than 9 months with AOM.

Results:

Compared with wild genotypes, IL-10 (–592, –819 and –1082) and TGF-β1 (codon 10) genotypes carrying the alternative allele were related to more AOM episodes (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001 and P = 0.002, respectively) and the need for tympanostomy tubes. Furthermore, IL-10 (–1082) and TGF-β1 (codon 10) genotypes carrying the alternative allele were related to later onset of first AOM episode than wild-type genotypes (P = 0.007 and P = 0.039, respectively). No relationship was found about AOM complications.

Conclusions:

Our findings suggest that IL-10 and TGF-β1 genotypes are related to the age of AOM onset, multiple AOM episodes and insertion of tympanostomy tubes, pointing to the involvement of anti-inflammatory cytokines in AOM during infancy.

Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

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