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Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal:
doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000000237
HIV Reports

Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy in Pediatric Patients: Case Report and Literature Review

Schwenk, Hayden MD, MPH*†; Ramirez-Avila, Lynn MD, MSc†‡; Sheu, Shu-Hsien MD§; Wuthrich, Christian PhD; Waugh, Jeff MD, PhD; Was, Adam MD**; DeGirolami, Umberto MD††; Burchett, Sandra MD, MSc; Koralnik, Igor J. MD; Ahmed, Asim MD

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Abstract

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a rare, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system caused by JC virus. Fewer than 30 cases have been reported in HIV- and non-infected children. We report the case of a 15-year-old girl with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and AIDS who presented with nystagmus, dysarthria and ataxia. Following combined antiretroviral therapy, she developed immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, which proved fatal.

Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

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