Background: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is classically defined as a childhood fever accompanied by a rash with vesicles or erosions of the oral mucosa, hands, feet and sometimes the buttocks. Severe neurological complications are associated with enterovirus 71 outbreaks in Asia. Recently, it has been suggested that HFMD is related to coxsackie virus A6 (CV-A6) when there is an atypical rash. The objective of the study is to determine the dermatological pattern of HFMD and to identify the virus serotypes associated with a specific dermatological pattern.
Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted in 7 pediatric dermatology units in France from March 2010 to February 2012. All children with clinically suspected diagnosis of HFMD were included. Clinical data were collected and swabs from the nasopharynx and vesicles were taken for reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and genotyping. Only children with confirmed HFMD—defined by clinical diagnosis of HFMD and positive enterovirus polymerase chain reaction results—were included for analysis.
Results: One hundred and four children consulted for suspected HFMD, including 89 (mean age: 25.7 months; sex ratio M/F 1.54) with confirmed HFMD. Seventy-eight (87.6%) had skin lesions on sites other than hand, feet and mouth. Thirty-seven (41.5%) had 5 or more anatomical sites involved (hand, feet and mouth, buttocks, legs, arms and trunk) considered as widespread exanthema. Widespread vesicular exanthema was observed with both CV-A6 and CV-A16. Peri-oral rash was associated with CV-A6 (P < 0.001).
Conclusions: HFMD has a clinical spectrum ranging from classical to generalized vesicular exanthema. Generalized and atypical exanthema were observed with both CV-A6 and CV-A16 infections. CV-A6 is associated with peri-oral rash.