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Active Surveillance of Candidemia in Children from Latin America: A Key Requirement for Improving Disease Outcome

Santolaya, Maria E. MD*; Alvarado, Tito MD; Queiroz-Telles, Flavio MD; Colombo, Arnaldo L. MD§; Zurita, Jeanette PhD; Tiraboschi, Iris N. MD; Cortes, Jorge Alberto MD**; Thompson, Luis MD††; Guzman, Manuel MD‡‡; Sifuentes, Jose MD§§; Echevarría, Juan I. MD¶¶; Nucci, Marcio MD‖‖; Latin American Invasive Mycosis Network

Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal: February 2014 - Volume 33 - Issue 2 - p e40–e44
doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000000039
Original Studies

Background: Active surveillance is necessary for improving the management and outcomes of patients with candidemia. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiologic and clinical features of candidemia in pediatric patients in Latin America.

Method: Prospective, multicenter, surveillance study of candidemia in a pediatric population from 23 hospitals in 8 Latin America countries between November 2008 and October 2010.

Results: Three hundred and two cases of candidemia were reported with a median incidence of 0.81/1000 admissions. Eighty nine (29%) were neonates. The main risk factors were prematurity, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, parenteral nutrition, respiratory disease and mechanical ventilation in neonates and malignancy, neutropenia, neurological disease and previous use of corticosteroids in children. The main species isolated in neonates and children were Candida albicans (43.8% and 35.7%), Candida parapsilosis (27.0% and 26.3%) and Candida tropicalis (14.6% and 14.6%), respectively. The most frequent antifungal therapy used in neonates and children was deoxycholate-amphotericin-B (43.8% and 29.1%) and fluconazole (28.1% and 53.1%). Seventeen neonates (19.1%) and 20 children (9.4%) did not receive antifungal therapy. The 30-day survival rate was 60% in neonates and 72% in children (P = 0.02). Survival was significantly higher in treated than in nontreated neonates (72% vs. 24%; P < 0.001). A multivariate analysis showed that independent predictors for 30-day mortality in children were renal disease (odds ratio: 4.38, 95% confidence interval: 1.92–10.1, P < 0.001) and receipt of corticosteroids (odds ratio: 2.08, 95% confidence interval: 1.04–4.17, P = 0.04).

Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first prospective, multicenter surveillance study of candidemia in children in Latin America. This epidemiologic information may provide us with methods to improve preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in our continent.

From the *Department of Pediatrics, Hospital Luis Calvo Mackenna, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Hospital Escuela, Tegucigalpa, Honduras; Hospital de Clinicas, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, Brazil; §Infectious Diseases Unit, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Hospital Vozandes, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador; Hospital de Clínicas José de San Martín, Buenos Aires, Argentina; **Department of Internal Medicine, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia; ††Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Medicine, Clínica Alemana, Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago, Chile; ‡‡Infectious Unit, Hospital Vargas, Caracas, Venezuela; §§Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico; ¶¶Department of Medicine, Universidad Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú; and ‖‖University Hospital, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Accepted for publication August 21, 2013.

The authors received Independent Medical Grant from Pfizer Inc. The authors have no other funding or conflicts of interest to disclose.

Address for correspondence: María Elena Santolaya, MD, Atalaya 11152, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile. E-mail: msantola@med.uchile.cl.

© 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.