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Parapneumonic Pleural Effusions Caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 3 in Children Immunized with 13-Valent Conjugated Pneumococcal Vaccine

Antachopoulos, Charalampos MD, PhD*; Tsolia, Maria N. MD, PhD; Tzanakaki, Georgina PhD; Xirogianni, Athanasia PhD; Dedousi, Olga MD; Markou, Georgia MD§; Zografou, Sofia-Maria MD, MSc§; Eliades, Andreas MD§; Kirvassilis, Fotis MD, PhD*; Kesanopoulos, Konstantinos PhD; Roilides, Emmanuel MD, PhD*

The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal: January 2014 - Volume 33 - Issue 1 - p 81–83
doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000000041
Vaccine Reports

During 2012, Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3 was identified by polymerase chain reaction in 15 out of 20 (75%) pleural fluid specimens from children with pneumococcal pneumonia complicated by parapneumonic pleural effusion in Greece. One-third of these children had been immunized with the 13-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine after the age of 12 months, according to the national immunization schedule.

From the *3rd Department of Pediatrics, Aristotle University School of Medicine, Hippokration General Hospital, Thessaloniki; 2nd Department of Pediatrics, University of Athens School of Medicine, “P. and A. Kyriakou Children’s Hospital”; National Meningitis Reference Laboratory, National School of Public Health, Athens; and §Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, University Hospital of Patras, Patras, Greece.

Accepted for publication July 20, 2013.

The present study was financially supported by the Hellenic Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose.

C.A., M.N.T. and G.T. contributed equally to this manuscript.

Address for correspondence: Emmanuel Roilides, MD, PhD, FIDSA, 3rd Department of Pediatrics, Hippokration Hospital, Konstantinoupoleos 49, GR-546 42 Thessaloniki, Greece. E-mail:

© 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.