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Microbiology of Acute Mastoiditis and Complicated or Refractory Acute Otitis Media Among Hospitalized Children in the Postvaccination Era

Giannakopoulos, Polyvios MD*; Chrysovergis, Aristeidis MD, PhD; Xirogianni, Athanasia PhD; Nikolopoulos, Thomas P. MD, PhD§; Radiotis, Alexandros MD, PhD*; Lebessi, Evangelia MD, PhD; Tsakanikos, Michail MD, PhD*; Tzanakaki, Georgina PhD; Tsolia, Maria N. MD, PhD

Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal: January 2014 - Volume 33 - Issue 1 - p 111–113
doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3182a6adb7
Brief Reports

In the post–heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era, Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the leading cause of acute mastoiditis and other complicated or refractory acute otitis media among hospitalized children in our settings. Serotype 19A is predominant, invasive and multidrug resistant causing more than half of all mastoiditis cases, two-thirds of cases with subperiosteal abscess and all those requiring mastoidectomy. Continuous surveillance is required.

From the *ENT Department, “P and A Kyriakou” Children’s Hospital, Athens, Greece; First ENT Department, University of Athens School of Medicine, “Hippokrateion” General Hospital, Athens, Greece; National Meningitis Reference Laboratory, National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece; §Second ENT Department, University of Athens School of Medicine, “Attikon” General Hospital, Athens, Greece; Microbiology Department, “P and A Kyriakou” Children’s Hospital, Athens, Greece; and Second Department of Pediatrics, University of Athens School of Medicine, “P and A Kyriakou” Children’s Hospital, Athens, Greece.

Accepted for publication July 24, 2013.

M.N.T. has received honoraria from GSK for lectures on the HPV vaccine. She has also received a research grant from Pfizer for an investigator-initiated study. G.T. has acted as a consultant and received travel support from GalxoSmithKline, Novartis and Pfizer. The authors have no other funding or conflicts of interest to disclose.

Address for correspondence: Maria N. Tsolia, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Second Department of Pediatrics, University of Athens School of Medicine, “P and A Kyriakou” Children’s Hospital, Athens, Greece. E-mail: matsolia@ath.forthnet.gr.

© 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.